Establishment And Management Of A Private Radio-Diagnostic Centre In Onitsha, Anambra State Problems And Prospects
This study was done to determine the problems and prospects of establishing and managing a private radio-diagnostic centre in Onitsha, Anambra state. It was carried out in the 42 diagnostic centers with private hospitals inclusive that have a radio-diagnostic unit. A survey type of design was used for the study, the source of data collection was a primary one. A total of 55 questionnaires were distributed to the proprietors of the centers and 52 questionnaires duly filled and returned given a return rate of 94.5%. The data collected was analyzed using tabulated frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation. They were categorized in line with the objectives of the study; tables, pie charts and a bar chart were the statistical tools used. Through the findings, it was shown that high cost of radiographic equipment and access to finance were the major set – up barriers while shortage of qualified radiographers and high cost of equipment maintenance were the major managerial problems. The work further revealed that running a private radio-diagnostic centre is highly profitable as it gives room for financial independence and as well create room for innovation and expansion. As deduced from the result, the initial capital for establishing a private radio-diagnostic centre is inadequate, therefore intending owners should source for sufficient initial fund before commencing the establishment process.
Table of Contents
- Title Page
- Approval Page
- Table of Contents
- List of Tables
- List of Figures
- 1.1 Background of Study
- 1.2 Statement of Problem
- 1.3 Purpose of the Study
- 1.4 Significance of the Study
- 1.5 Scope of the Study
- 2.1 Review of Related Literature
- 2.2 Theoretical Background
- 2.2.1 Private Radiodiagnostic Centre
- 2.2.2 Preliminaries to Business Formation and Ownership
- 2.2.3 Causes of Small Business Failure
- 2.2.4 the Importance of Small Business Enterprises
- 2.2.5 ‘planning for” and “siting of” a Private Radiodiagnostic Centre
- 2.2.6 Management of a Radiodiagnostic Centre
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Source of Data
- 3.3 Population of Study
- 3.4 Method of Data Collection
- 3.5 Method of Data Analysis
Data Analysis and Presentation
Discussion of Findings, Summary of Findings, Recommendation, and Conclusion
- 5.1 Discussion of Findings
- 5.2 Summary of Findings
- 5.3 Conclusion
- 5.4 Recommendations
- 5.5 Limitations of Study
List of Tables
- Table 1: Sex Distribution of Respondents
- Table 2: Age Distribution of Respondents
- Table 3: Response to Adequacy of Initial Capital
- Table 4: Degree of Barrier Constituted by Identified Setup Problems
- Table 5: Response to Availability of Radiography/sonographers
- Table 6: Degree of Effects of Identified Managerial Problems
- Table 7: Response to Availability of Referral Sources
- Table 8: Degree of Agreement With Identified Prospects
- Table 9: Response on General Assessment of Radiography/ultrasonography as a Business Venture
List of Figures
- Figure I: A Bar Chart Showing the Post Qualification Experience of Respondents
- Figure II: A Pie Chart Showing the Sources of Initial Capital of Respondents
1.1 Background of the Study
Radio-diagnostic centre refers to a place where medical diagnostic service is given by using sophisticated equipment (such as x-ray equipment) to produce images of the internal structure of the body anatomy and physiological assessment in some cases. Fundamentally any given radio-diagnostic centre is setup for diagnosis, screening and medical examination and may be established by government or private organizations. Diagnostic X-ray (radiography) is the use of electromagnetic energy beams to produce images onto film or computer. X-rays are performed for various reasons such as diagnosing bone injuries or tumors. The purpose for the establishment of private x-ray diagnostic center is to improve the health status of the masses and vulnerable population in the state and also to ensure greater access of the people to quality diagnostic services at all time. Considering the existing situation, there is a dire need for adequately equipped diagnostic facilities in a private x-ray diagnostic center. For the establishment of a standard and approved private x-ray diagnostic center, some certain requirements must be attained and these include1;
- Standard building for x-ray examinations with dark room facility. The walls of the building must be lead lined for radiation protection.
- Room should be located as far away as feasible from areas of high occupancy and general traffic.
- The radiography units should be operated from separate control room or behind a lead mobile protection screen of 1.5 mm lead equivalent wherever necessary.
- The establishment needs to fulfill the clauses as laid down in the safety manual prepared by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board.
These policies and strategies are needed to ensure that patients receive the lowest possible radiation risk and maximum health benefits from X-ray examinations. Private radio-diagnostic center is self reliant and is capable of reviving the national economy. It is one of the fastest growing and important sectors as far as labour absorption and poverty reduction is concerned
The aim of this work is to identify the problems associated with establishing and managing privately-owned radio-diagnostic center in Onitsha and also to assess the prospects of success. Radio-diagnostic center is a big aspect in medicine that requires millions of money and the problems and prospects in establishing and managing them in a private sector in Onitsha is unknown to the best of the researcher knowledge. Establishing an outpatient imaging centre with computed tomography and conventional radiography units involves million of money which may be borrowed. Despite huge investments in money and efforts, business success in medical imaging is not automatic as private medical imaging practice is fraught with a lot of problems such as poor infrastructure, unstable economic climate, lack of government incentives and poor managerial skills3. With adequate attention to technology, capital planning, business planning and finance, growth promotion, entrepreneurship development and operational efficiency, the risks of failure in establishment and management of private radio-diagnostic center can be minimized and returns optimized4.
Although, having a medical school degree is not a necessity in order to establish an x-ray diagnostic center (non-professional entrepreneur), but a medical background will be useful, and the staff will need to be a certified radiographer with current credentials. If the center will also offer reports, there will be a need for certified radiologists either as staff or available on an out-sourced basis. Private x-ray diagnostic center could be involved in the provision of selective services which will reduce pressure on the government facilities thereby improving the service delivery to the general population5. In general, the value proposition for private practitioners is patient convenience, better management and increased revenue6. Investment in radiographic services by private practitioners has been on the increase7. This could be attributed to more accruable economic benefits, it can also be said to offer great employment opportunities. All these seems to point towards the need for more radiographic centres in Onitsha hence the need to assess the problems of establishing a good radiographic centre and to determine the prospects of running it on a private basis.
1.2. Statement of Problem
- The major problems of establishing and managing a private radio- diagnos-tic centre in Onitsha have not been known to the best of the researcher’s knowledge.•
- The prospects of establishing and managing a radio – diagnostic centre on a private basis in Onitsha have not been known to the best of the researcher’s knowledge.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
- To identify the problems associated with establishing and managing a private radio – diagnostic centre in Onitsha.
- To outline the prospects of establishing and managing a private radio -diagnostic centre in Onitsha.
1.4 Significance of the Study
- The outcome will provide useful information required for the establishment and management of private radio – diagnostic centre in Onitsha.
- The work will be a source of motivation and guide to people towards establishment and management of private radio-diagnostic center.
- Information on the prospects of running a private radio – diagnostic centre will lead to the establishment of more radio – diagnostic centres which will in turn promote competition and also lead to quality service delivery.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The prospective study will involve private hospitals and diagnostic centres in Onitsha that oer radio-diagnostic services
Discussion, Summary of Findings, Recommendation and Conclusion.
5.1 Discussion of Findings
In this study, the result showed that majority of the owners of private radio-diagnostic center are men (76.9%). This is in line with an observation which showed that in general, men are more likely to be entrepreneurs than women38.This is because female businesses are also found to have relatively low levels of startup capital which can lead to business failure. In addition to this, majority of those in private practice are between the ages of 40-49 with about 9-16 years post qualification experience. The reason why most of them are of that age group may not come as a surprise, because they may have taken sometime to accumulate fund and also to acquire enough experiences required to set up and manage a private radio-diagnostic centre. They perhaps needed to build up networks and possibly obtain more professional qualification before they venture into private practice.
The result showed that 67.3% of the respondents were inadequately financed initially. Poor financial support system pose serious challenge as personal savings are not enough to go into capital intensive projects like private medical imaging practice. This is attributed to the investor’s inability to raise adequate initial capital due to the poor economic situation in the country which has its multiplier effects as difficulty in accessing loan from banks and other financial institution. This further depicts that informal sources of business finance can-not generate large sum of funds to meet the required initial capital at the time of their establishment. The result showed that the cost of radiographic equipment and access to finance constitute a very strong barrier to setting up a private radio-diagnostic centre with mean values of 4.27 and 4.04 respectively while lack of infrastructure constitutes a strong barrier with mean values of 3.27, which is in accordance with the research made by Okaro et al8which showed that poor public infrastructures and unstable economic environment are the major challenges in establishing and managing private radio-diagnostic center. Lack of licensing and registration also constitute a moderate barrier with mean values of 2.67.The result also showed that unavailability of qualified radiographers / sonographers to work in private radio-diagnostic center adversely constitute managerial problems with mean values of 4.37. This is in accordance with a study which showed that majority of small business consider ending and retaining qualified workers as the most significant challenge to the growth and survival of their business35. Another serious problem encountered by the management is the high cost of equipment maintenance. This is probably why it was stressed that the traditional process for capital equipment installation in healthcare set-ting is not often managed to maximum effectiveness18.
Relatively high cost of radiographic / ultrasonographic services, inadequate working capital, high tax rates and high cost of skilled labour moderately constituted managerial problems with mean values of 3.38, 3.35, 4.00 and 3.69 respectively. Sequel to this, competition with public diagnostic units and lack of managerial talents with mean values of 2.65 and 2.12 were noted to mildly affect such establishment. This ending goes with the observation that public diagnostic units have cost advantage over private ones and consequently creates unfair competition6. The implication is that private radio-diagnostic centres face similar problems with other small and medium scale enterprise. Though the response to availability of referral sources is “few” by 57.7% of the respondent, 26.9% were of the opinion that referral sources are many, 15.5% believed that referral sources are scarce while 3.8% believed that referral source sare too many. This result also showed that private radio-diagnostic centres provide outlets for self development and fulfillment, give room for financial in-dependence, create room for innovation, expansion and finally pay more than a paid job. This is in accordance with a research which showed that private radio-diagnostic center is self reliant and is capable of reviving the national economy 2.23 It is one of the fastest growing and important sectors as far as labour absorption and poverty reduction is concerned.
5.2 Summary of Findings
- It was observed that most of the owners of private radio-diagnostic centres had inadequate capital for setting up the business.
- It was observed that most of the owners of private radio-diagnostic centers found it difficult to retain qualified radiographers/sonographers to run the centre.
- It was observed that the high cost of radio-diagnostic equipment posed a strong barrier to establishing a private radio-diagnostic centre.
- It was also observed that high cost of equipment maintenance posed serious problem in maintaining a private radio-diagnostic center.
- It was also observed that private radio-diagnostic centers provide outlets for self development and fulfillment.
- It was also observed that private radio-diagnostic centers are highly profitable
In this research work, the researcher assessed the problems and prospects involved in establishing and managing a private radio-diagnostic center in Onitsha, Anambra state, Nigeria. The findings showed that the initial capital for establishing a private radio-diagnostic center is inadequate. The cost of acquiring radio-diagnostic equipment constitutes a strong barrier in setting up a private radio-diagnostic center. It was also observed that most of the owners of private radio-diagnostic centers found it difficult to retain qualified radiographers / sonographers to run the centre. Finally, it showed that private radio-diagnostic centres provide outlets for self development and fulfillment, give room for financial independence, create room for innovation, expansion and finally pay more than a paid job.
- Intending owners of private radio-diagnostic centres should ensure that they have sufficient initial capital for setting up the business so that the diagnostic centre will be of high standard and meet the needs of the patients.
- Private owners should endeavour to make the salary of radiographers attractive so as to always have radiographers available for employment when needed.
- Since private radio-diagnostic centers create room for innovation, and employment opportunities, then its establishment should be encouraged.
5.5 Limitations of the Study.
The study like every other study has its limitations.
- Some private owners were unwilling to disclose some information about their diagnostic centres.
- Some questionnaires were not returned.
- It was difficult covering all the private hospitals and radio-diagnostic centers in Onitsha
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