Effects Of Marijuana Smoking On Some Cardiac Enzymes In Albino Rats

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

Effects Of Marijuana Smoking On Some Cardiac Enzymes In Albino Rats


Abstract


Marijuana is derived from the hemp plant cannabis sativa which is grown in many tropical areas in the world. It is a green or grey mixture of dried, shedded flower and leaves. Marijuana is the most often used illegal drug in the United States. Most users roll loose marijuana into a cigarette called a “Joint” (William and Thomas, 2005). Some users mix marijuana into food or use it to brew tea; hash users either smoke the drug in a pipe or mix it with tobacco and smoke it as cigarette. Most researchers agreed that there is only one extract (sativa) with variant, while others believe that there are only three different extracts which include: Dranabinol (2, 9-tetrahydrocannabinol), cannabinol and cannabidol (Agurell et al., 2000). Due to its nature as a substance of abuse, it is unlawful to posses or supply cannabis. Thus it is difficult to obtain precise estimate about the extent of its use. Data from 2013/2014 survey in Britain suggest that over 3.3 million people used cannabis that year (Chivite et al., 2014).

From a New-Zealand birth cohort of 1265 children it was found that by the age of 21 nearly 70% has used cannabis (Fergusson and Hawood, 2011). The heart is a muscular organ in all vertebrates which is responsible for pumping the blood by the repeated rhythmic contraction and involuntary muscles, it is supplied by the coronary circulation and enclosed by a sac known as the pericardium and it is surrounded by the lungs (Malton et al., 2009). Enzymes markers of the heart disease can be assessed by estimation of a variety of enzymes such as creatine kinase (CK_MB), Lactate dehydrogenate (LDH), Alaninetransminase (ALT) and Aspartate transaninase (AST). A survey on 15 chronic marijuana smokers reveals that the values of AST, ALT, LDH, and Ck-MB were elevated following myocardial infarction when compared to non-smokers (Kew et al., 2010).


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