Awareness Of Diabetic Complications Among Diabetic Patient In St Joseph Hospital Adazi

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

Awareness Of Diabetic Complications Among Diabetic Patient In St Joseph Hospital Adazi


Abstract


This study was carried out on the awareness of diabetic complications among diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 113 respondents and 85 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The result of the findings reveals that The diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi does not have an adequate knowledge of the causes and types of diabetes. The study also revealed that the diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi has a good knowledge of the symptoms of diabetes which are excessive urination, excessive thirst, excessive hunger, and loss of weight. Furthermore, the diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi has a good knowledge of the risk factors of diabetes which include; obesity, taking too much alcohol, and unhealthy diet. Therefore, it is recommended that to improve diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi knowledge and awareness, it is necessary to enhance the education of teachers and health professionals regarding the pathology, etiology, risk factors, prevention, management and complications of diabetes. And a greater focus is needed on the responsibility of health professionals in educating patients, families and the community about how a healthy lifestyle can reduce the risk of developing DM and the complications of those living with this chronic disease.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • 1.9 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic, progressive, systemic disease characterized by dysfunction in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins as a result of insulin deficiency with resultant high level of glucose in the blood(Leon, Alan, and Mutnick, 2010). Diabetes mellitus also disrupts the function and structure of blood vessels and nerves. Insulin is the hormone that controls the metabolism of glucose, fat and proteins. This health problem is clinically classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) into type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes (GDM), and other specific types known as secondary DM(WHO, 1985). A classical group of individuals categorized as prediabetes are characterized with a condition defined as blood sugar level higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as type 2 DM. These individuals are at greater risk of developing type 2 DM. Study suggested that the increasing occurrence of this condition in younger age group may be linked to larger number of high risk ethnic groups, obesity epidemic, and other lifestyle factors(Graves, 2010)

DM is a global public health challenge with an extreme effect on the quality of life(Hyelm, 2003) and its prevalence is increasing at an alarming rate. In 2015 International Diabetes Federation estimated that 415 million people have diabetes mellitus in the world out of which 14 million are in African region(IDF, 2013). Meanwhile 90% of these diabetes mellitus cases are type 2 DM. It is projected that by 2040 this estimated figure will more than double. In Nigeria, the prevalence rate is between 2% – 7%(Wild S, Roglic, and Green 2004). The global increase in diabetes mellitus is associated with many factors including ageing population, unhealthy diets, and sedentary lifestyle that heightens the individual’s propensity towards obesity. In the industrialized countries the disease is common among the elderly in contrast to developing countries where it largely affects adults between 35-64years of age which is a significant segment of the productive age range. In some countries diabetes mellitus also frequently occur in youths(WHO, 2004). In addition to reduced productivity and declining economic growth, the disease leads to high economic burden in terms of health care expenditure(Whiting, 2011). Classical symptoms of DM include: excessive drinking of water, excessive passage of urine, excessive eating and loss of weight. There is growing evidence that preventing and/or delaying the onset of diabetes is a viable option by adopting healthier diet, increased exercise and modest weight reduction, to prevent persons with impaired glucose tolerance from progressing to outright DM(Chiasson, 2007). Other factors implicated in DM include inherited genetic factor which is common in people with family history of DM; obesity; and excessive consumption of alcohol(Braunwald, 2016). Clinically, complications of DM affect mainly the eyes, kidneys, cardiovascular, and neurological systems. Diabetes mellitus is believed to be a very common and extremely devastating chronic disease that has afflicted mankind(Hall, 2014). The disease is a cause of growing public health concern in under developed countries as it has been for a long time in most developed countries(Braunwald, 2009). Diabetes mellitus silently kills unaware victims. Meanwhile many victims become aware they have the disease only when complications are manifested. Unfortunately there is a poor awareness about the extent of the problem among the public, as well as awareness of the available intervention for preventing DM and managing its complications is poor(Park, 2011).

Knowledge of DM can prevent the imminent chronic co-morbidities of DM which impact significantly on the quality of life of the individual. Information can help people assess their risk of developing diabetes thus encourage them to seek proper treatment and enable them to adopt behaviours that can prevent development of DM. Knowledge forms a basis for the adoption of good health-related attitudes and perceptions, and academic institutions and colleges are some of the best places to implement programmes which will increase knowledge and awareness about lifestyle- related diseases and preventive measures. Literature search yielded limited studies that assessed knowledge of diabetes mellitus among University diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi. The few studies that assessed knowledge of undergraduates in some Asian countries, South west Nigeria showed poor knowledge of DM among the diabetic patient. Meanwhile, there have not been any study on this topic which addresses the knowledge of diabetic patient. Hence, this study tends to evaluate the knowledge, awareness and impact of diabetes among diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic, progressive systemic disease characterized by dysfunction in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and protein resulting from absolute or relative insulin deficiency. Symptoms of diabetes mellitus or high serum glucose level (hyperglycemia) include polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and weight loss.

Uncontrolled or improper management of DM leads to serious complications including blindness, renal failure and cardiovascular problems. These often occur in individuals ignorant of the disease. This study therefore aimed to assess the Awareness Of Diabetic Complications Among Diabetic Patient In St Joseph Hospital Adazi.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the Awareness Of Diabetic Complications Among Diabetic Patient In St Joseph Hospital Adazi.

Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Ascertain the knowledge of the causes of diabetes.
  2. Ascertain the knowledge of the types of diabetes.
  3. Ascertain the knowledge of the symptoms of diabetes.
  4. Ascertain the knowledge of the risk factors of diabetes.
  5. Ascertain the knowledge of the impact/complications of diabetes.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the knowledge of the causes of diabetes?
  2. What is the knowledge of the types of diabetes?
  3. What is the level of knowledge of the symptoms of diabetes?
  4. What is the knowledge of the risk factors of diabetes?
  5. What is the knowledge of the impact/complications of diabetes?

1.5 Significance of the Study

Diabetes is a major risk factor for heart failure, renal failure, blindness, and stroke. The control of blood pressure is important in the management of Diabetes. Hence, knowing the risk associated with diabetes, it becomes necessary to educate the young ones on the causes, symptoms and effects of diabetes. This will help to control the prevalence of the illness.

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to knowledge, awareness and impact of diabetes among diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine the Awareness Of Diabetic Complications Among Diabetic Patient In St Joseph Hospital Adazi. However, the study will further ascertain students knowledge of the causes of diabetes, ascertain students knowledge of the types of diabetes, ascertain students knowledge of the symptoms of diabetes, ascertain diabetic patients knowledge of the risk factors of diabetes, and ascertain diabetic patients knowledge of the impact/complications of diabetes. Therefore, the respondents for this study will be obtained from diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Knowledge:

This is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts, skills, or objects contributing to ones understanding.

Diabetes:

This is also known as diabetes mellitus. It is a chronic, metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose (or blood sugar), which leads over time to serious damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nerves.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was on the Awareness Of Diabetic Complications Among Diabetic Patient In St Joseph Hospital Adazi. The study is was specifically carried out to ascertain diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi knowledge of the causes of diabetes, ascertain diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi knowledge of the types of diabetes, ascertain diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi knowledge of the symptoms of diabetes, ascertain diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi knowledge of the risk factors of diabetes, and ascertain diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi knowledge of the impact/complications of diabetes.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 85 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi does not have an adequate knowledge of the causes of diabetes.
  2. The diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi has a poor knowledge of the types of diabetes.
  3. The diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi has a good knowledge of the symptoms of diabetes which are excessive urination, excessive thirst, excessive hunger, and loss of weight.
  4. The diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi has a good knowledge of the risk factors of diabetes which include; obesity, taking too much alcohol, and unhealthy diet.
  5. The diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi does not have adequate knowledge of the impact/complications of diabetes. However they know that sexual dysfunction, heart disease, kidney problem are all cased by diabetes.

5.2 Recommendations

With respect to the findings and the aim of this study, the researchers therefore recommend that;

  1. To improve diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi knowledge and awareness, it is necessary to enhance the education of teachers and health professionals regarding the pathology, etiology, risk factors, prevention, management and complications of diabetes.
  2. A greater focus is needed on the responsibility of health professionals in educating patients, families and the community about how a healthy lifestyle can reduce the risk of developing DM and the complications of those living with this chronic disease.
  3. The Nigeria Health Service should step up its health programs in educating the young diabetic patient in St Joseph Hospital Adazi on diabetes.

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