Incidence Of Gastro-Enteritis In Danwaire Street Barnawa Kaduna South Local Government Of Kaduna State

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

Incidence Of Gastro-Enteritis In Danwaire Street Barnawa Kaduna South Local Government Of Kaduna State


Abstract


The study was designed to determine the incidence of gastro-enteritis in Danwaire street Kaduna south local government of Kaduna state of Nigeria aims and objective were set up in order to achieve this study along with research question hypothesis, literature reviewed on the incidence of gastroenteritis in Dan waire Street Barnawa and how it can be controlled and prevented, the research design was survey design method and the population of the study area was fifty thousand (50,000) out of which one twenty (120) of the population was randomly selected and used to data collection using questionnaire which were validated and tested for reliability. Data were present and analysis using table and percentage, conclusion was drawn based on the finding of the research, the causes of gastroenteritis in the study area is as a result of ignorance, unhygiene and drinking of contaminated water and food and rate of typhoid is on all age group.

also recommendation were made to the community government, health workers. should engage the habit of purifying water before consumption so as to reduce. the spread of disease in the study area, and also to provide free drug because of the high price of the drug.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Gastro enteritis also knows as infections diarrhea, it can be defines as inflammations of the gastrointestinal tract that involves the stomach and small intestine.

Gastroenteritis is the inflammations of the stomach and intestine usually, causing upset that last for two or three days.

Enteritis epidemic diarrhea as if is also termed, summary diarrhea is an acute infection inflammations conditions of the intestine due to several organism it affect infant and children mainly under the age of two and most common during the hot months of the years when flies and dusts are present in great quality and when infections of food, particularly milk is therefore most likely to occur the unset is sudden with diarrhea vomiting, toxemic and dehydrations infant admitted with this condition present with rapid pulse. Thread and compressible, dehydration isalso indicated by sunken eyes boat shaped. Abdomens sunken Fontanilla and inelastic skin, thirst prostration coma, and relief can be obtained the immortality rate will be high (Evelyn Pearce 2010).

Gastro enteritis is an infections of stomach, and bowel ( large intestine) cause by bacteria’s and virus ( google search 2013)

Bacteria such as shigella or pathogenicescherichacoli may be implicated but sometimes no pathogens are founds occasionally viruses have been isolated from specimen of faces it is common among children of age but infants are especially at risk due dehydration and electrolyte imbalanceevely peace).

Gastro enteritis is an acute inflammation of the stomach and intestine microorganism such as salmonella bacillus, staphylococcus parasite. Ground worm (chemical irritant e.g excessive alcohol) rarely the condition may be
Attributed to allergies reaction to a certain food in drug this signs and symptoms include diarrhea and vomiting abdominal scrimp, abdominal tenderness and pain, fever and tencosytosi (Watson 2002).

The inflammation of the stomach and intestine usually cause sudden upset that last for two to three days dysentery typhoid fever, cholera, food poison and travelers’ diarrhea are act forms of gastro-enteritis the unless may be caused by any of a variety of bacteria, bacteria toxins, viruses and others organisms in food and water, appetite loss, nauseas vomiting cramps and diarrhea are the usually sing and symptoms unset severity depend on the cause symptoms may be mild or so severe that dehydration, shock and collapse occur mild cases usually require rest and rehydration therapy only, for severe cases treatment in hospital may be necessary with fluids given by intravenous infusion. Antibiotic drugs may be given for some bacterial infection but others need no specific treatment (medical dictionary first UK edition).

Gastro enteritis can also be describe as one of the most fatal disease found in the tropics which is associated with dirty environment it is a very serious abdominal disease and during epidemic thousand die within a few days it is characterized by sudden onset toxemia, vomiting and frequent copious watery

Evacuation from the bowel resulting in repaid and extreme dehydration in children fluid is offering retain and may be evacuated (Balitere Tinda) define gastro-enteritis as the inflammation of the stomach and intestine due to viral or bacterial infections infatile gastro enteritis is an acute condition of diarrhea and vomiting producing severe dehydration the cause may be dietetic, infection or parenteral when the condition is second to infections or elsewhere in the body e.gotitis media (Baliere Tindaln1992).

From my experience as a student in training in a primary health care centre in the rural areas where mothers bring their condition with extreme cases of gastro-enteritis the mothers usually attribute the cause to teething problem the fact is not the mode of transmission and presentation of gastro enteritis is not to many rural dwellers had stimulated me to do a research work on this topic in order to create awareness as to the cause made of transmission and prevention of the disease.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Gastroenteritis is a disease that affect all age group which include children, adult and old age and also infants all sex both male and female. The federal state and local government opened time and money in ensuring well sanitized water for human consumptions and proper environment sanitation which are the measure key in controlling gastro enteritis up on that gastroenteritis exist in the study area which cause and adverse effect in all age. Therefore I will like to find out the cause of particular disease in the study area.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

  1. To know the complication and epidemiology of the disease
  2. To know the factors in preventing the occurrence of gastro enteritis in the study area
  3. To identify the cause of gastro enteritis in the study area.
  4. To know the factors preventing the occurance of gastroenteritis in the area.
  5. Health educated the community about the causes and preventive measure.

1.4 Significant of the Study

Studies have been shown that serious action has been take in reducing the rate of this disease.

Therefore I wish to research of this study will help to achieve the following;

  1. The study will help the people to know the causes preventing control and treatment of gastro enteritis in the study area.
  2. Government should be recommend to fight against gastro enterits or any water born disease in the study area.

1.5 Research Question and Hypothesis

Poverty be the basic major cause of causing gastro enteritis in the study area.

  1. Does the ignorance be the factors of causing gastroenteritis?
    • Yes ignorance can be the factor causing gastroenteritis
  2. Can contaminated water be a factor of causing gastroenteritis
    • Yes contaminated water is one of the factors causing gastro enteritis
  3. Does improtected food ensuring gastroenteritis
    • Yes unwell protected food can cause gastroenteritis
  4. Can gastroenteritis be cured
    • Yes it can be cured when treated correctly
  5. Does unwell cooked food cause gastroenteritis
    • Yes unwell cooked food can lead to gastroenteritis
  6. Is there particular season for gastroenteritis
    • No but gastroenteritis occur mostly during the hot season.
  7. Does behaviors of government attributed the increase of gastro enteritis in the area of the study
    • No if reduce the occurrence of the disease in the area
  8. Does behavior of people in the area contribute to the occurrence of gastroenteritis
    • Yes behaviors of people contributed to the occurrence of gastroenteritis
  9. Does gastroenteritis affect only infant
    • No if affect all age group
  10. Can unhygienic environment contributed in occurrence of gastroenteritis
    • Yes unhygienic environment contributed in occurrence of the disease

1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope of this research covers the evaluation of gastroenteritis in Danwaire Street Barnawa Kaduna south local government under the following

  • Causative agent/vector / pathogens
  • Bacteria
  • Mode of transmission
  • Prevention and control
  • Treatment
  • Diagnosis
  • Causes
  • Sign and symptoms

1.7 Definition of Terms

Gastroenteritis:

Is the inflammations of gastroenteritis tract which are stomach and intestine

Pathogen:

This Is the organism that cause the disease

Sanitation:

This is an arrangement that to protect public health

Transmission:

Mode of the spread of the disease

Dysentery:

An infection of the intestinal tract causing severe diarrhea with blood and mucus

Diarrhea:

The passing of soft watery stool greater than three times a days

Inflammation:

Redness, swelling, heat and pain in a tissue due to injuring or infection

Epidemic:

The appearance of a particular disease in a very large number of people during the same period of time

Stomach:

It’s an organism in body where food is digested.

Infection:

To cause disease in (someone) by introducing organism such as bacteria and virus.


1.8 The Limitation of the Study

The limitation of this study cover is knowing the causes, preventing sign and symptoms incubations period as well as treatment of gastroenteritis in the research study of danwaire street barnawakaduna south


Chapter Five


Summary, Discussion, Finding, Implication Recommendation and Conclusion.

Introduction

This chapter summarized the major finding of this research work, general summary, discussions, finding implication recommendation and conclusion of the finding which will be follow accordingly.


Summary

In chapter I there is discussion of gastroenteritis which covers the background of the study research question, hypothesis, and scope of the study and definition of the study.

In chapter II the literature review was discussed followed by definition of gastroenteritis sign and symptoms epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of gastroenteritis and lastly the summary of literature review.

In chapter III which is known as methodology consist of research design area of the study, population of area of the study sample and sampling techniques.

A sample size one hundred (100) which include married single window and divorce, were selected. The instrument use for data collection is a structure questionnaire constructed after literature review one hundred and twenty (120) questionnaire which consist of third question, one hundred questionnaire answer correctly

Chapter IV the data was collected and tallied using frequency percentage analysis.


Discussion

The discussion of the research project is on gastroenteritis. It consist of five (5) chapter each chapter carry different topic,

  • Chapter I consist of the background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, significant of the study, research question, scope of the study, definition of the terms andthe limitation of the study.
  • Chapter II also consist of various heading which include the following literature review, definition of gastroenteritis, epidemiology of gastroenteritis, sign and symptoms, diagnosis treatment of gastroenteritis prevention and control causes , incubation period, role of local government and complication,
  • Chapter III consist the questionnaire the questionnaire have two (2) section the section A and B the section A contain the personal data of the respondent which section B contain the question which are thirteen in number, then methodology, research design, area of the study, population of the study sample of the study, instrument for data collection, data collection procedure and reliability of the instrument.
  • Chapter IV this chapter focuses in the Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of data generated from the filed through the structural questionnaire.
  • Chapter V this chapter deals with the Summary of the study, Discussion, Finding, Implication Recommendation and Conclusion and Reference

Findings

The finding of this research is that the causes of gastroenteritis in the study area is as a result of ignorance, unhygiene and drinking of contaminated water, and contaminated food.

  • Lack of proper sanitation of the environment
  • Lack of attempting to routine immunization

Implication

As gastroenteritis lead to so many diseases and complication e.gdehydration, coma and death. It also lead to maternal mortality specially during first trimester most pregnancy mothers are admitted in the hospital as a result of gastroenteritis, infants motility also occur as a result of gastroenteritis especially 6 months to 2 years of age.


Recommendation

Recommendation were made to the community, government, health workers.

  1. Community should engage in purifying their drinking water, personal and environment hygiene as well as hand wash before and after the toilet and food.
  2. Government should provide good source of water to the community and provide free drugs and treatment to the people,
  3. The community should be monitor time to time tin environment hygiene to make a limit in reducing the rate of the disease in the community. Community health workers should provide extensive on the causes prevention and control of gastroenteritis

Conclusion

The study was carried out on the incidence of gastroenteritis in Danwaire Street Barnawa Kaduna south local government of Kaduna state it was discovered that most of the community member have made quite knowledge on causes, prevention and control of gastroenteritis health education should carried out in the area to reduce the risk of the disease,

Finally government should implement / establish a programme that is to provide free drugs for the area


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