The Effect Of Communicable Diseases Among Children

Project and Seminar Material for Biology

The Effect Of Communicable Diseases Among Children


This project work was designed to find out the effect of communicable diseases among children in Benin City poor. Communicable diseases are very common among poor resident. Communicable diseases could be contacted and have effects in primary school pupils, which may include deformity and poor academic performance. Immunization can be used to control the spread of communicable diseases among school pupils.

One hundred respondents were used as sample study. Research questions were formulated to analyze the results. Results showed that lack of parental care, lack of health education and overcrowding of pupils in class lead to spread of communicable diseases. Recommendations made included that every individual should be fully educated about communicable diseases and that adequate and proper hygiene should be encouraged.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Communicable diseases are as old as man and they constitute a great menace to human beings in every part of the world. They are one of the greatest problems facing children today. The diseases are silent killers unlike accident that kills instantly. Man has been trying to get rid of these diseases, for years but efforts made have proved partially abortive. Specifically, pre-school children (0-5 years old) are prone to communicable diseases because of their close interaction with one another, their non-discriminatory behaviours and also their low immunity power. A disease that is transmitted through direct contact with an infected individual or indirectly through a vector. Also called contagious disease.

Communicable Disease Definition

Communicable disease is often called contagious or infectious disease. Anderson (2000) defined a communicable disease as a disease that can be transmitted from one person to another or from lower animal to higher animal (man). He attributed the cause of these diseases to pathogenic microorganisms. Brain (2007) also noted that communicable disease are infectious diseases that can be passed from person to another or from an animal to a person.

It is generally believed that nature harbours many microorganism which are very difficult to see with mere naked eyes except with the use of highly powerful microscopic lens. Those microorganisms which harm the human body are called pathogens. Udoh, Fawole, Ajala, Okafo & Nwana (2007) confirmed that pathogens that harm the body are popularly known as germs. These invade the tissues of the human host where they produce the condition called disease. These germs/pathogens (that is virus, bacteria, protozoan and metazoan) are mostly found in dirty places where the temperature and atmosphere support their existence.

Olaoye (2008) classified communicable diseases into four namely water borne disease, air borne diseases, insect borne and other diseases that are transmitted by contacts and arthropods. Brain (2007) stated that the best way of classifying communicable diseases is by their spread, and these are; air borne or droplet infections; faecal borne or gastro-intestina infections; transmission from animal, from insects and by contacts. Barbara and Bauirer (2007) identified three ways of transmitting communicable diseases as; transmission by contact, by vector and by air.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Home environment contribute to communicable diseases among school children. In the Africa culture the value of education is highly perfect, be it formal. If one take the formal education as a case study, the home or environment contribute a lot to the hygienic system of the child both of home and in school. As this could prevent some communicable disease that could have affected the pupils because the sound foundation for future prevention of communicable diseases start from home. lack of care at home, some time cause unhealthy rivalry among pupils as it has a negative effect on the health of the child both of home school and its environment.

1.3 Purpose Of The Study

The purpose of this study is to find out the cause and effects of communicable diseases among children in Benin City. specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Determine the causes of communicable disease among children in Benin City.
  2. Ascertain the effect of communicable disease among children in Benin City.
  3. Determine ways to address the issues of communicable disease among children in Benin City.
  4. Determine effect of poverty of parents to the spread of communicable diseases among children.

1.4 Research Questions

The researcher in trying to substantiate the result of his study deducted the following research questions which are:

  1. Does lack of parental care lead to spread of communicable disease among children in Benin City?
  2. Does lack of health education lead to spread of communicable disease among children in Benin City?
  3. Can overcrowding of pupils in classrooms lead to the incidence of communicable disease among children in Benin City?
  4. Does poverty of parents lead to spread of communicable diseases among children?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

In carrying out the study, the researcher hoped that it would be of great benefit to the public in general and to the educational system in particular. It would help educate parents on how to handle their environment and the health of their children. This study will help school management in preventing the spread of communicable disease in school and how to help children suffering from such problems. Moreover it is hoped that it would help teachers to know how to handle such children when they experience difficulties.

1.6 Scope Of The Study/Delimitation Of The Study

This study is restricted to pupils from Orhionmwon Local Government Area of Edo State Benin City. it is also limited to some six primary schools within the study area. The researcher limited her study to primary schools in Orhionmwon Local Government Area of Edo State.

Therefore, only primary six from six primary school located in urban and rural areas of the local government were used for the study. They are as follows:

  1. Abiokula Primary School, Abudu
  2. Adanko Primary School, Evbiboesi
  3. Adenko Primary School, Ugo
  4. Okogbo Primary School, Okogbo
  5. Awannore Primary School, Evboesi
  6. Obozogbe Primary School, Obozogbe

1.7 Definition Of Terms


Constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from sphere to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacterial inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and the deep portions of earth’s crust. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationship with plants and animals. They are also known to have flourished in manned spacecraft.


(Of a disease) able to be transmitted from one sufferer to another contagious or infectious.


A disorder of structure or function in a human, animal, or plant, especially one that produces specific symptoms or that affects a specific location and is not simply a direct result of physical injury. A disease is a particular abnormal, pathological condition that affects part or all of an organism. It is often construed as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs. It may be caused by factors originally from an external source, such as infectious disease, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions, such as autoimmune diseases. In humans, “disease” is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes pain, dysfunction, distress, social problems, or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems for t hose in contact with the person.


In epidemiology, an infections is said to be endemic in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. For example, chickenpox is endemic (steady state) in the UK, but malaria is not. Every year, there are a few cases of malaria acquired in the UK, but these do not lead to sustained transmission in the population due to the lack of a suitable vector.


A hazard is a situation that poses a level of threat to life, health, property, or environment. Most hazards are dormant or potential, with only a theoretical risk of harm, however, once a hazard becomes “active”, it can create an emergency situation. A hazardous situation that has come to pass is called an incident. Hazard and possibility interact together to create risk.


Appearing or happening at irregular intervals in time, occasional, sporadic renewals of enthusiasms. Appearing in scattered or isolated instances, as a disease, isolated as a single instance of something, being or occurring apart from others occurring singly or widely apart in locality; the sporadic growth of plants.

Chapter Five

Conclusion And Recommendations


The WHO (2011a) and other studies (Goldstein et al., 2005; Schneider et al.,2009) have demonstrated the influence of poverty on CD prevalence and effect. The urban poor are disproportionately affected by CDs. Socio-economic development and urbanisation and its accompanied behavioural changes are the drivers of the epidemiological transition (Agyei-Mensah and de-Graft Aikins, 2010; Allender and Lacey, 2010; Allender et al, 2011; Ekpenyong and Akpan, 2013; Ford and Caspersen, 2012). Rapid urbanisation and economic development increase the populations exposure to the modifiable risk factors associated with CDs.

Communicable diseases effect is not limited only to affluent populations as the WHO reported a link between poverty and CD (WHO, 2011a). The results of this thesis also confirm that the urban poor are not exempted from the effect of CDs. About one in five of the 806 parentss interviewed had at least a member diagnosed with at least one CD condition. The odds of underestimation of the prevalence rate among the study population cannot be ignored due to diagnosis and disclosure of disease status to other childrens. One out of every three (33%) persons ever diagnosed with CD did not treat, medicate or receive any therapy for the condition during the least two weeks preceding the survey. This phenomenon of treatment of chronic diseases can be attributed partly to high level of poverty and high cost of healthcare.

The results of this thesis also point that the high healthcare cost result in noncompliance to medication and treatment among persons living with CDs, and is consistent with the findings of other studies (Asenso-Okyere et al.,,1998; AsensoOkyere and Dzatorb, 1997; Buabeng et al., 2004; de-Graft Aikins, 2005). The lack of medical options and social protection systems for the urban poor presents significant health effect. Poverty therefore is a major determinant of adherence to management and treatment regime of CDs. The relatively high cost of healthcare results in catastrophic healthcare expenditure and parents impoverishment.


Drawing on the results of this thesis, four broad recommendations are made. These are in the areas of collaboration between national and local agencies to provide social protection for the most vulnerable population in the society. Also, the incorporation of CD risk, prevalence and effect into national surveys to provide the requisite data needed to study the effect of CD at the national level. There is also the need for policy reforms in the national health insurance scheme to account for the epidemiological transition-taking place in the country, and further studies to build on the findings of this study.

Collaboration of agencies for social protection schemes

Collaboration of national and local agencies in the country to provide social protection to the most vulnerable in the society is recommended. Results from this study indicated that except for church, none of the persons living with CD reported belonging to any social, self-help group or association. This provides an avenue for stakeholders in the health, economic, and development sectors to collaborate to provide the needed ground for the creation and enrolment of infected persons in social and self-help groups. This will provide needed social protection to the vulnerable people living with CD. Lack of social security and low employment among the study population, particularly persons living with CD put poor parentss at higher risk of impoverishment. Collaboration to provide social protection to the vulnerable in the society could be through the making of available and accessible governmental supports interventions such as the Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP) to poor parentss with persons living with CDs.

Communicable disease indicators in national surveys

There are still research gaps in quantifying the prevalence and effect of CDs in Nigeria. Understanding the effect of chronic disease at the micro level is pivotal in any effective health policy intervention. However, there are limited researches in this area to provide in-depth understanding of the significant challenges of CDs on parentss. Sub-Saharan Africa is noted to lack reliable data on causes of disease and the overall effect (Unwin et al., 2001).

The Effect Of Communicable Diseases Among Children

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