Causes And Effect Of Malaria Among Children

Project and Seminar Material for Biology

Causes And Effect Of Malaria Among Children


Abstract


The aim of this study was to determine the causes and effect of malaria among children in Benin City. Research questions were formulated using the questionnaire as research instrument. One hundred and fifty respondents were used as sample study to determine the prevalence of malaria in the area. Result showed that lack of awareness and poverty leads to the spread of malaria among children and leading to death of the children in Benin City . Use of insecticide treated nets reduced the prevalence of malaria in the locality. Recommendations made included that non-governmental organizations (NGO) should fully participate in enlightenment campaign in the locality and cleaning of roads, gutters and drainages should be encouraged to stop the spread of malaria.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Malaria is an acute and chronic disease caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan of the genus plasmodium (Eneanta, 1996). Malaria has also been one of the world’s worst killer diseases throughout recorded human history. Despite attempt to eradicate it, it remains one of the worst disease in terms of death annually.

Malaria parasite was discovered in 1886 by Laveran a military physician working in Constantine Algeria (Ksogstad, 1996). Malaria is a serious notificable infectious illness characterized by periodic chills, fever, sweating and sptemomeguly. It has serious and often fatal complications which gave way to Falciparom malaria. It is intermittent and remittent fever caused by a protozoa parasite that incades the red blood cells. Malaria is a preventable and treatable disease of public health. Malaria is by far the most important insect transmitting disease (Curtis, 1991).

Malaria is a mosquito borne infectious disease of human and other animals causes by protists, it begins with bites from an infected female anopheles mosquito (Churchill, 1998)., it is transmitted in large areas of Africa, South America, Middle East, Eastern Europe etc symptoms of malaria are characterized by cyclic occurrence of chills, fever and profuse sweating. This occur when the merozoite destroys the red blood cells causing toxin to be released into the blood. Its symptoms also includes headache, nausea, aneamia and jaundice if serve.

Malaria is made up of types depending on the plasmodium involves. It includes tertian malaria caused by plasmodium, vivax fever, caused by plasmodium falciparum. The life cycle of malaria parasite involves the cycle in the blood of man and cycle in mosquito (Obueh, 2003). Considering the magnitude of this problem, it therefore become very extremely important that this project work should be carried out to reduce the prevalence of malaria among children from 0 to 5 years old in Benin City, Benin City, Edo State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Malaria has become very common and is increasing in an uncontrolled way throughout Nigeria and world as whole, due to the bite of the female anopheles mosquito which carries the plasmodium in an attempt to eradicate this deadly disease, a massive response need to be mounted by the government to enlighten the public about the prevalence of malaria. Also provide remedy for treatment of it.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The objective of this study is to determine prevalence of malaria among children from 0 to 5 years old in Benin City , Benin City, Edo State. The specific objectives of this study includes;

  1. To determine the prevalence of malaria among children between 0 to 5 years in Benin City , Benin City, Edo State.
  2. To identify the various means the vector transmits the parasite plasmodium.
  3. To determine the symptoms and signs of malaria
  4. To examine the ways to eradicate the prevalence of malaria among children from 0 to 5 years in Benin City , Benin City, Edo State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were asked and answered in the process of study of this work;

  1. Does lack of awareness contribute to the prevalence of malaria among children in Benin City ?
  2. Does poverty encourage the spread of malaria among residents of Benin City ?
  3. Can malaria lead to the death of children from 0 to 5 years old in Benin City ?
  4. Can poor sanitation among the residents lead to prevalence of malaria in Benin City ?
  5. Does the use of insecticides treated net prevent the prevalence of malaria among children in Benin City ?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This research work is very relevant in several ways to communities, personnel, individual, and government.

The work will expose the prevalence of malaria and enlighten the community on t he effects of malaria among children in Benin City mostly in Benin City . Also it will proper measures for preventing this deadly disease. This study will also enlighten people on the signs and symptoms of malaria and how the parasite plasmodium invade the host body through the transmission by the vector mosquito.

The study will encourage the government of Edo State to swing into actions by creating various measures to prevent further outbreaks of malaria among the resident of the states.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This project work focuses on the prevalence of malaria among children 0-5 years in Benin City . This study will cover areas and quarters in Benin City , Benin City, as sample study where resident’s opinion will be sampled.

However, there is delimitation of this study to just 3 area as a result of time constraint and means of transportation.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Children:

Plural child. Children are human who is not yet an adult.

Fever:

Fever is an abnormally high body temperature and also the state of nervous excitement.

Malaria:

Is a disease causing recurrent fever it is also a serious disease carried by mosquito to which causes periods of fever.

Parasite:

This is an organism that live inside or outside living organism and derives its nutrients.

Prevalence:

This is a condition that is common or widespread.

Protozoan:

These are microscopic and unicellular organism found in both marine and fresh water.

Symptoms:

Symptoms is a change in the body or mind which is the sign of a disease.


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

In this study, our focus was to examine the causes and effect of malaria among children in Benin City, Edo State.

The study specifically was aimed at determining the prevalence of malaria among children between 0 to 5 years in Benin City , Benin City, Edo State; identify the various means the vector transmits the parasite plasmodium; determine the symptoms and signs of malaria; examine the ways to eradicate the prevalence of malaria among children from 0 to 5 years in Benin City , Benin City, Edo State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are mothers resident in Benin City, Edo State.

The findings revealed that:

  1. Lack of awareness contribute to the prevalence of malaria among children in Benin City
  2. Poverty encourage the spread of malaria among residents of Benin City
  3. Malaria lead to the death of children from 0 to 5 years old in Benin City
  4. Poor sanitation among the residents lead to prevalence of malaria in Benin City
  5. The use of insecticides treated net prevent the prevalence of malaria among children in Benin City.

5.2 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Non-governmental organizations (NGO) should fully participate in enlightenment campaign in the locality and cleaning of roads, gutters and drainages should be encouraged to stop the spread of malaria.
  2. Parents should endeavor to use insecticides in their houses to prevent the bite of mosquitoes.
  3. Parents should endeavor to use insecticides treated net to cover their children in order to prevent mosquito bite.
  4. Residents of Benin City should always keep their surroundings neat and bushes should always be clears as well as drainage systems.

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