Impacts Of School Health Program In Reducing Communicable Disease In Secondary School Students

Health Education Project Material

Impacts Of School Health Program In Reducing Communicable Disease In Secondary School Students


Abstract


This study was carried out on the impacts of school health program in reducing communicable disease in secondary school students in Kwara State as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of teachers of selected secondary schools in in Kwara State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 53 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypothesis was tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that school health program have a positive effect the health of students in secondary school. The study also revealed that health education help to increase students awareness on communicable diseases. Furthermore, the study revealed that health education help to sensitize students on the ways preventive communicable diseases. Therefore, awareness should be created for students in secondary schools through health education on the need for change of lifestyle by avoiding dirty environments, improved life of personal and environmental hygiene, eating of healthy diets, avoiding sedentary lifestyle that could cause health problems and engaging in regular exercise that would aid effective circulation of blood throughout all the systems and organs of the body thereby ensuring healthiness. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

School health services are those given in schools by health educators, nurses, doctors, dentists, and other health-related employees such as guidance counselors and social workers to assess, promote, and safeguard students’ and staff’s health. According to Johnson and Mayowa (1991), school health services are procedures established to assess the health status of students and school personnel, counsel students, parents, and others regarding appraisal findings, provide follow-up services, provide emergency care for injury or sudden illness, assist in the prevention and control of communicable diseases, and encourage the correction of remedial defects.

School health services are intended to assess kids’ physical and mental well-being, to prevent sickness, and to elicit parental and child collaboration in order to repair deficiencies and maintain health (Mshelia M.D., 1999). According to Akinbile and Akinkunmi (1998), school health services contribute to those school activities that are directly related to the school child’s current health condition. Nwana and Onyema (1988) expressed sadness that what is referred to as school health care in Nigeria is a farce, while Kane and Collins (2007) observed that although specific clinics have been developed for the welfare of school students, the same cannot be said for their health. Neglect of school health care might be related to Nigerians’ erroneous belief that once a kid reaches school age, he becomes resistant to sickness. In Nigeria, Abiodum & Sunkanmi (1996) conducted a survey of 500 students aged five to fifteen years in a small rural community and discovered that 75% (75%) suffered from mental morbidity, while emotional and behavioral disturbances accounted for 67% (67%) of the total morbidity rate detected, prompting him to emphasize the importance of more functional school health services. The most fundamental role of school health services is to assess children’ health. According to Freeman and Lorrein (1999), health appraisal entails continuous and close observation of the school child and teacher, whereas Turner, Bandall, and Smith (1990) defined health appraisal as a process that ensures professional advice to students and their families regarding personal health, as well as advice to the school regarding the adaptation of the school program to the needs of students. Dental examination, vision, hearing, and speech screening tests, medical examination, health history, and teacher observations should all be included in the health evaluation.

According to Tahir and Aminu (1997), Nigeria has a population of 9.3 million nomadic people, of whom 3.1 million are school-aged children. According to Mshelia (1999), these nomadic school-aged children do not enjoy long-term health due to the presence of several communicable diseases; they also suffer from multiple infestations and illnesses. As a consequence, their morbidity rate is high, and he attributes this to communicable illnesses caused by poor environmental conditions. Malnutrition, accidents, and a general lack of health care all contributed to the high morbidity rate. Mshelia Madeline (1999) continued by stating that if school health programs were rigorously pursued in nomadic secondary schools, the frequency of high morbidity rates among school kids would have been kept to a bare minimum. As a result of the aforementioned, the purpose of this research is to determine the significance of health education in preventing the spread of communicable diseases in Nigeria among secondary school kids.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

secondary school students’ health is a worldwide issue, since children are the most valuable assets any country can have, as their well-being represents the nation’s future. The school years are a time of fast physical and mental growth for children, necessitating the implementation of a functioning school health program to ensure the child’s entire development. According to experts, nomadic secondary school kids have suffered from communicable illnesses, infections, fatal injuries as a consequence of tetanus infection, dental cavities, rashes, inadequate first aid kits for emergency treatment, and recorded incidents of epidemics caused by poor environmental circumstances. Nomadic school kids have not shown a high degree of good health behaviors and attitudes, which is the goal of the school health service.

Mshelia and Madeline (1999) argued that nomadic children had a short life expectancy owing to high mortality rates and a lack of long-term health due to the presence of several infectious illnesses. However, if school health programs in nomadic secondary schools are appropriately funded and rigorously implemented, absence in schools and high illness rates among nomadic secondary school kids may be reduced, if not eliminated entirely. However, based on the aforementioned, this research will assess the significance of health education in preventing the spread of communicable diseases among secondary school kids in Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of the study is to examine the impacts of school health program in reducing communicable disease in secondary school students.

Specifically, the study will be guided under the following:

  1. Ascertain whether school health program is effectively taught in secondary school.
  2. Examine the effect of school health program on the health of students in secondary school.
  3. Determine whether school health program helps to increase students awareness on communicable diseases.
  4. Determine whether school health program helps to sensitize students on the ways preventive communicable diseases.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

  1. Is school health program effectively taught in secondary school?
  2. Does school health program have a positive effect the health of students in secondary school?
  3. Does school health program help to increase students awareness on communicable diseases?
  4. Does school health program help to sensitize students on the ways preventive communicable diseases.

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • H0: school health program do not help to control the spread of communicable diseases among secondary school students.
  • Ha: school health program helps to control the spread of communicable diseases among secondary school students.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be significant to the ministry of health as t will be exposed to the need of sensitizing secondary school pupil on the important of school health program and how to control the spread of communicable disease.
This study is significant to school management as it will be exposed to the need of having school health program department in the school in other for periodic sensitization of students.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will examine the effect of school health program among secondary school students. The study will also find out if school health program helps control the spread of communicable disease. The study will further evaluate the challenges in sensitizing secondary school students on the spread of communicable disease. Lastly, the study will recommend ways to improve school health program among secondary school students in Nigeria in other to control the spread of communicable disease. Hence the study will be delimited to public secondary schools in Kwara State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Just like any other research, unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, and inability to get data were among the constraints the researcher encountered in the cause of this study. Financial constraint was equally faced by the researcher, in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires.

Furthermore, time factor pose another constraint because the researcher have to shuttle between writing of the research and engaging in other academic work which made it uneasy for the researcher.


1.9 Definition of Terms

School Health Program:

Consciously constructed opportunities for learning involving some form of communication designed to improve health literacy, including improving knowledge, and developing life skills which are conducive to individual and community health.

Communicable Disease:

Illnesses that result from the infection, presence and growth of pathogenic (capable of causing disease) biologic agents in an individual human or other animal host.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the importance of school health program in the control of communicable disease spread in Nigeria among secondary school students using some selected secondary schools in Kwara State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the importance of school health program in the control of communicable disease spread in Nigeria among secondary school students using some selected secondary schools in Kwara State as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to ascertain whether school health program is effectively taught in secondary school, examine the effect of school health program on the health of students in secondary school, determine whether school health program helps to increase students awareness on communicable diseases, and determine whether school health program helps to sensitize students on the ways preventive communicable diseases.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were teachers of selected secondary schools in in Kwara State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. School health program is not effectively taught in secondary school.
  2. School health program have a positive effect the health of students in secondary school.
  3. School health program help to increase students awareness on communicable diseases.
  4. School health program help to sensitize students on the ways preventive communicable diseases.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Awareness should be created for students in secondary schools through school health program on the need for change of lifestyle by avoiding dirty environments, improved life of personal and environmental hygiene, eating of healthy diets, avoiding sedentary lifestyle that could cause health problems and engaging in regular exercise that would aid effective circulation of blood throughout all the systems and organs of the body thereby ensuring healthiness.
  2. Government should encourage training and re-training of school health program teachers in secondary schools to measure up to the expected standard and demands of present day diseases.
  3. Government should establish more health care facilities all over the country to meet up with the health needs of people in the rural and urban. Adequate healthy life and effective treatment of those who have diseases are vital issues that could not be neglected in a healthy society.

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