Phytochemical Analysis Of Cleome Viscosa

Project and Seminar Material for Biology

Phytochemical Analysis Of Cleome Viscosa


Abstract


Cleome viscosa Linn (Capparaceae) commonly known as “wild or dog mustard” is an annual sticky herb found as a common weed all over the plains of India and through the trophics of the world. The whole plant and its parts (Leaves, pods and roots) are widely used in traditional and folkloric systems of medicine. Cleome viscosa were extracted with and all these extract were screened for the presence of various metabolites (primary and secondary) including proteins, carbohydrates, etc was found in the roots and the alkaloids, glycosides, amino acids, volatile oils, steroids and terpenoids are present in all three parts of C. viscosa, the result showed that.


Table of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of contents
  • List of tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Importance of Phytochemicals
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Justification
  • 1,4 Aim of the study
  • 1.5 Objectives of the study

Chapter Two

2.0 Species and Origins

  • 2.1 Breeding
  • 2.2 High in Vitamins and Micronutrients and Values
  • 2.3 High oil Content in seed
  • 2.4 Spider plant as medicine
  • 2.5 Uses in traditional medicine and other reported activities
  • 2.6 Spider plant in crop production

Chapter Three

3.0 Method and Materials

  • 3.1 Study area
  • 3.2 Collection of samples
  • 3.3 Preparation of extracts
  • 3.4 Phytochemicals screenings
  • 3.4.1 Test for Alkaloids
  • 3.4.2 Test for Saponins
  • 3.4.3 Test for Flavonoids
  • 3.4.4 Test for Tannins
  • 3.4.5 Test for Amino acids
  • 3.4.6 Test for Phenols
  • 3.4.7 Test for Glycosides
  • 3.4.8 Test for Terpenoids
  • 3.4.9 Test for Volatile oils
  • 3.4.10 Test for Balsams
  • 3.4.11 Test for Anthraquinone
  • 3.4.12 Test for Steroids
  • 3.4.13 Test for Saponin Glycosides
  • 3.4.14 Test for Cardiac Glycosides

Chapter Four

4.0 Result


Chapter Five

5.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Discussion
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References

List of Table


Table 1: phytochemical screening of leaves, pods and roots aqueous of extract of C. viscosa. L


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Definition

The Cleome viscosa Linn is commonly known as Asian spider flower or yellow spider flower. It belongs to Capperaceae family.C.viscosa is a weed distributed throughout the tropics of the world and the plains of india. It is known as Asian spider flower in English, Namijin `yaranguwa in Hausa, Hurhur in India, Hurhuria in Bengali, Nayikkadugan in Tamil (Asolkaret, al. 1992).Traditionally, this plant is used in various disorders such as diarrhoea, fever, inflammation, liver diseases, bronchitis, skin diseases, and malarial fever (Henty and Pritchard, 1975). The juice is useful in piles, lumbago and earache. The analgesic, antipyretic and anti-diarrhoeal activities of the extract have been reported by researchers, it was noted that the fresh leaves of C.viscosa are widely used as medicine for Jaundice.

Taxonomical profile

  • Kingdom: Plantea
  • Phylum: Tracheophyta
  • Class: Magnoliopsida
  • Order: Capparales
  • Family: Capparaceae
  • Genus: Cleome
  • Specie: Viscosa

(UNEP-WCMC 2011)

Brief description of the plant

Cleome viscosa belonging to the family Capparaceae (Narayanaet, al., 2003). It is an annual sticky herb with strong penetrating odor.

The plant is clothed with glandular and simple hairs (Rukmini, 1978). It is a widely distributed herbaceous plant with yellow flowers and long slender pods containing seeds, which is similar to that of mustard. C.viscosa, also called “Dog mustard”, is a herb that grow up to 1m height in India (Parimalaet, al., 2004). Cleome is a large genus included in the Capparaceae family, which comprises 427 species occurring in tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Brummit, 1992). The native of the plant is Africa and S. Arabia to Australia.The leaves are diaphoretic, rubefacient and vesicant. They are used as an external application to wounds and ulcers. The juice of the leaves has been used to relieve earache. The seeds are anthelmintic, carminative, rubefacient and vesicant. The seeds of C.viscosa are used to treat fever, diarrhea, and infantile convulsion (Rashmi, et al., 2012). C.viscosa is a popular remedy for a variety of ailments as documented in Ethno-botanical surveys and traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani (Raghavan, 1993).


1.1 Importance of Phytochemicals

The defuttered extract were tested for the presence of different secondary plant metabolites. Basic phytochemical screening consist of performing simple chemical test to detect the presence of alkanoids (Herbone, 1973),Tanins (Herbone, 1998) and saponid and cardial glycoside.

Observation of antibacterial activity may be due to the presence of potent phytochemical constituents in the extracts. The data obtained in the present work will be useful in the synthesis of new drugs of pharmaceutical importance. Phytochemical analysis or screening can be useful to substantiate and authenticate drugs
e.gpharmacognostic


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The chemical pollution of soil has become a major source of concern and has posed serious health problem within the last few years in many developed and developing nations (Ahmadpouret, al., 2010). The effect of heavy metal on plant resulted inhibition, structural damage, a decline of physiological and biochemical activities, as well as of the function of the plant (Oancea, 2005). As a weed, C.viscosais found in abundance within the University premises including students hostels and staff quarters, road-site, University mini market and other areas. The plant is increasingly dominating agricultural lands and hence pose danger to other plant species.


1.3 Justification

This plant specie is considered as a weed. Phytochemicals are generally used as a essential nutrient responsible for the protection and carrying of many health situation, including fever, diarrhea, infantile convulsion, ulcer and earache e.t.c. Hence it is important to determine the specie chemical compositions present in the leaf, pod and roots.


1.4 Aim of the Study

The aim of the study is to determine and identify some
phytochemicals present in the leaf, root and pods of C. viscosa.


1.5 Objectives of the Study

This study have the following objectives;

  1. To determine phytochemicals presence in the root, leaves and pods of C. viscosa.
  2. To evaluate the difference concentrations of the secondary metabolites in the root, leaves and pods of C. viscosa.

Chapter Five


5.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Discussion

Plants are rich and useful source of primary and secondary metabolites like proteins, lipids and carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins e.t.c. These metabolites are useful for the plant as well as for the human being for the treatment of various illnesses such as fever, diarrhea, earache, headache and external wounds etc (Nisha et, al., 2011). The pods of C. viscosa are documented to be beneficial in helminthic infections such as convultions, fever and diarrhea. The roots are considered cardiac stimulant and are given internally in cases of snake bite and diabetes.

Determinations of these metabolites are helpful to know the medicinal as well as nutritional value of respective plants (Mandal et, al., 2003). The present work have determine the content level of primary and secondary metabolite in the roots, pods and leaves of C. viscosa by using various chemical test as well as by applying the well developed analytical methods.


5.2 Conclusion

It can be concluded that the leaf aqueous extract of C. viscosa showed high content of phytochemicals, all of the secondary metabolites were found to be present with the exception of Anthraquinines. The pods aqueous extract showed presence of all the phytochemicals tested with the exception of Saponin, Cardiac glycoside and Anthraquinines. Roots extract was found to have the least number of phytochemicals studied.


5.3 Recommendation

Further studies need to be done using different extract (ethanol, methanol etc) to be able to isolate, identify and characterize the phytochemicals.


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