The Effect Of Mosquito On Man
This study was carried out on the effect of mosquito on man. Mosquitoes comprise a group of about 3,500 species of small insects that are flies. Within Diptera they constitute the family Culicidae. The effects of mosquito on man can never be overemphasized. This study sought to educate the society about the danger of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases on man. The scope of this study was Awowo village, Pakudi village and Wasinmi, Okuribido South East Local Government area of Ogun state.This study adopted a descriptive survey design. Descriptive survey was suitable since this study sought to determine the effect of mosquito on man. The data for this study were generated from two main sources; Primary sources and secondary sources.
The study used simple random sampling to select 240 respondents for the study. In this study, questionnaires and interview were research instruments used. The questionnaire was structured type and provided answers to the research questions and hypotheses therein. The data collected were coded and analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) software package version 16. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages were used to measure the effects of mosquito on man. Hypotheses were tested using chi-square regression. The result showed that Since critical value is less than calculated value, the null hypothesis Ho1 was rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted Hi: There was a significant knowledge and perception of mosquitoes in Okuribido South East of Ogun state. Also, calculated value of X2 was lesser than the critical value, the null hypothesis Ho2 is rejected while the alternative hypothesis is accepted: There are significant ways in preventing and controlling mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases.
Since calculated value of X2 was less than the critical value, the null hypothesis Ho3 was rejected while the alternative hypothesis is accepted: Government and NGOs play a significant role in eradicating mosquitoes as a vector. Therefore, it can be concluded from the present survey that intensified efforts towards creating public awareness regarding the seriousness of mosquito borne diseases and preventive measures are needed. The study recommended that use of mass media for disseminating information on prevention, causes and management of mosquito-borne diseases among the respondents should be encouraged.
Table Of Contents
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of problems
- 1.3 Objectives of the study
- 1.4 Research questions
- 1.5 Hypotheses
- 1.6 Significance of the study
- 1.7 Scope of the study
- 1.8 Operational definition of terms
Review Of Related Literature
- 2.1 Overview of Mosquito
- 2.2 Distribution and Dispersal of Mosquitoes
- 2.3 Anatomy of adult mosquito
- 2.4 Mosquito Morphology and Feeding Habits
- 2.5 Lifecycle of mosquito
- 2.6 Mosquito Born Diseases
- 2.6.1 Malaria
- 2.6.2 Filariasis
- 2.6.3 Japanese Encephalitis
- 2.6.4 Chikungunya
- 2.6.5 Yellow Fever
- 2.6.6 Dengue Fever
- 2.6.7 Dog heartworm
- 2.6.8 West Nile Disease
- 2.6.9 St. Louis Encephalitis
- 2.6.10 California Encephalitides
- 2.7 Mosquito Bites and Treatment
- 2.8 Mosquito Control Methods
- 2.8.1 Source Reduction
- 2.8.2 Exclusion
- 2.8.3 Biological Control
- 2.8.4 Chemical Control Method
- 2.8.5 Use of phytochemicals for mosquito control
- 2.9 The Role of Government Agencies and the Public in reducing mosquito-borne diseases
- 3.1 Research design
- 3.2 Sources of Data
- 3.3 Population of the study
- 3.4 Sample size determination
- 3.5 Instrumentation
- 3.6 Reliability
- 3.7 Validity
- 3.8 Method of data collection
- 3.9 Method of data analysis
- 3.10 Ethical consideration
Data Analysis, Presentation And Discussion
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Sociodemographic data for respondents
- 4.3 Responses pertinent to the knowledge and perception of mosquito
- 4.4 Responses pertinent to Prevention and control of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases
- 4.5 Responses pertinent to the role of the government and NGOs in eradicating mosquitoes as a vector
- 4.6 Test of hypotheses
- 4.7 Discussion of the findings
Conclusion And Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the study
One of the most reviled insects in the world, the mosquito is generally not very well thought of among people and scientists. These tiny, flying, bloodsucking insects earned their bad reputation because they can spread diseases such as malaria and the plague and also because mosquitoes can lurk anywhere and live inside your home without being detected for a number of days (Ileke, 2018).
Mosquitoes are among the most important insect pests affecting the health of people and animals. Biting female mosquitoes not only irritate people and animals, but they can also transmit many disease-causing organisms (Gupta, 2010). Annoying populations of mosquitoes can occur anywhere in Texas because there are habitats favorable for mosquito species almost everywhere in the state. To control mosquitoes effectively, it helps to understand their life cycle, to be able to identify the various kinds of mosquitoes, and to know what steps work best for the different species and specific locations (Ileke, 2015).
Mosquitoes also produce larvae that live in standing water and can breed and reproduce almost anywhere there is even the tiniest little bit of stagnant water.
Worldwide, mosquitoes are undoubtedly the most important insect. Today, more than 200 million people in more than 100 subtropical countries of the world live under the threat of mosquitoes (WHO, 2018). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the mosquito causes or contributes to the death of one to three million people each year, mainly children under the age of five. In general, in science, the study of insects (etomology) cannot compete without a broad title.
Mosquitoes play a very important role in any scientific discipline. It should be noted, however, that an overview of the initiative on the nature and life cycle of any scientific organism only reaches those who have a solid foundation of observation and scientific discipline behind them for it to be successful in study. of mosquitoes and their effects on humans. Special attention should be paid to the study if their habits and their life cycle. Given that special attention is paid to the environment in which these species of organisms live, their role and mode of reproduction must also be taken into account, since they affect the life span of humans.
Given the above differences and diversity, this work will be limited to the study of mosquitoes and their effects on humans. Many of humanity’s ideal themes are among the 85,000 mosquito and stagnant species of the “Oldest Diptera” south of insect groups. Most members of the order have a single pair of wings, hence the name diptera, that is, two grooves, most of them, like mosquitoes also have tubular mouths. It can cover human skin to nourish blood. Blood loss is low, but when the insect sips, viruses and other pathogens can pass from insects to the human host. Diseases like malaria, yellow fever, elephantiasis are transmitted in this way (Ileke, 2017).
There are about fifty species in the family, culiacdac, many of which are called mosquitoes. They are thin flies with long, brittle legs and narrow wings. Only the female cuts the skins of the mammals and sucks the blood, the male withdraws from the female with long pulps and feathers like analenas (Bhattacharya and Chandra, 2014). In Okuribido South East Local Government Area of Ogun state in particular and in Nigeria in general, there are currently three species of mosquitoes that are all potential transmitters of malaria, elephantiasis and yellow fever. The spotted mosquito (Anopheles maculipennis) is an example of the mosquito type with the rest of the abdomen raised at an angle and the head aligned with the rest of the body (Adedire and Lajide, 2018). It has wings and a subspecies (athroparus) that breeds in the blackish waters of the coastal district. The common mosquito (anlex pipien) is a very abundant mosquito near standing water and a type that rests with its abdomen parallel to the surface on which it rests and whose head is lowered at an angle (Acero, 2014). One of the largest and fiercest mosquitoes is Aedes albopictus. It has spotted wings and legs and a body of white rings. Females attack humans and other building literate mammals somewhat and rest in the same position and have a life cycle very similar to that of a common mosquito (Abbott, 2014).
Mosquitoes as members of the diptera “Orde” do not have a pair of rear wings, but the rear pair is only represented by a pair of small club-shaped structures, the halters (Barbosa et al., 2017). These seem useless, but cannot fly without them. A fly with its halters cut can still flap its wings at the normal frequency and through the normal angle, but it loses control in midair, has a straight trajectory, and can fall on its back. These halters have an important role in flight control.Against this backdrop, this study sought to examine the effect of mosquito on man.
1.2 Statement of problems
In Africa as a whole and in Nigeria in particular, diseases transmitted by mosquitoes to their host are expected to contribute enormously to about two thirds (2/3) of the total number of deaths recorded each year.
Precise figures have shown that human mortality rate is increasing rapidly and again, there is an indication that the reproduction rate of certain insects such as mosquitoes also increases geometrically (Barbosa et al., 2017). The entomology of insects, mosquitoes, to be precise, shows that the majority of human deaths are due to diseases transmitted by these vectors to their hosts. One idea of these vector-borne diseases is malaria caused by female Anopheles mosquitoes; yellow fever caused by Creole mosquitoes (Ileke, 2015). The transmission of diseases that normally pass through the bloodstream and contaminate pure blood, resulting in an acute illness are characterized by many symptoms such as severe fever, headache, vomiting, fatigue, dizziness, loss of appetite which may end up cause death. With all of these negative things surrounding mosquitoes, many people often wonder about what, if any, positive effects mosquitoes have on the world around them. Therefore, it is worthwhile to conduct an adequate study of these undesirable effects and, therefore, to know the panacea to stop the problems by reducing the reproduction rate of these vectors (insects).
1.3 Objectives of the study
The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of mosquitoes on man, using Okuribido South East of Ogun state as case study.
The following are the specific objectives of the study:
- To examine the knowledge and perception of mosquitoes.
- To access the prevention and control of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases.
- To examine the role of the government and NGOs in eradicating mosquitoes as a vector.
1.4 Research questions
- What is the knowledge and perception of mosquitoes?
- What are various ways in the prevention and control of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases?
- What is the role of the government and NGOs in eradicating mosquitoes as a vector?
H1: There is a significant knowledge and perception of mosquitoes in Okuribido South East of Ogun state.
HO1: There is no significant knowledge and perception of mosquitoes in Okuribido South East of Ogun state.
HO2: There are no ways in preventing and controlling mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases.
HO3: Government and NGOs play a significant role in eradicating mosquitoes as a vector.
HO3: Government and NGOs do not play any significant role in eradicating mosquitoes as a vector.
1.6 Significance of the study
This study will help to create awareness on the effects of mosquitoes on man. Therefore, assisting us to study our environment properly and know what causes the high breeding rate of these insects (particularly mosquitoes) and their control or preventives measures.
The study will provide knowledge on the danger and effect of malaria on human being. It is serves as a reaching text to members of the public, who could want to gain more or have a deeper knowledge, on the effects of mosquitoes on man. It also will serve as awareness to the people of Okuribido South East local government area and to encourage non-government organizations (NGOs) to participate in campaigning to the people on the danger of mosquitoes to man and its preventive measures.
1.7 Scope of the study
The study was carried out within Okuribido South East Local Government Area of Ogun state, in the following locations/villages:Awowo village, Pakudi village and Wasinmi.
1.8 Operational Definition Of Terms
These are carried of yellow fevers.
These are a branch of science, which deals with the study of mosquitoes.
These are carriers of elephantiasis and filariasis.
These are rapid diseases that can spread among many people.
An idea or suggestions that are based on known facts and is used as a basis for reasoning or further investigation.
Mosquitoes are parasitic organism that suck human blood (female) and spread diseases such as malaria, yellow fever or elephantiasis.
Parasites are small organism that lives in (endoparasites) or outside cectoparasites) another large organism (the host) from which the parasite obtain food without contributing anything in return. Example mosquitoes, tick and fleas etc.
These are areas of low land along the coast, which is been regularly flooded by the rivers, seas and ocean. It is a region of heavy and frequent.
These are organism that carries pathogens.
World Health Organization (WHO):
These are organ of united nation (UN) which foresee or responsible for health.
Conclusion And Recommendation
This study was carried out on the effect of mosquito on man. The study results revealed that residents within Okuribido South East Local Government Area of Ogun state had an appreciable knowledge on the effect of mosquito on man.
This study has shown that there was little gap in knowledge of mosquito on man. This could be due to the fact that majority of the respondents either have such knowledge gap because they do not have a science-based background or have not given much thoughts to issue of mosquito-borne diseases, especially as their course curricula do not cover the field. However, this knowledge gaps are worrisome among this educated sample as it gives an idea of bigger knowledge gaps among the general population of ‘not-so educated’ Nigerians. Illiterate people and those with low levels of education might be unable to understand written health education materials, such as posters and flyers. So, it can be concluded from the present survey that intensified efforts towards creating public awareness regarding the seriousness of mosquito borne diseases and preventive measures are needed. Information about breeding sites of mosquitoes, mortal outcomes of mosquito borne diseases such as malaria, dengue etc. should be conveyed to community.
The Government should intensify the campaign against the mosquito borne diseases through different public sectors or advertisement in news papers or TV channels and should take proper action in regular cleaning of polluted water. The spraying of suitable chemical adulticide or larvicide as well as the introduction of biocontrol agents such as application of larvivorous fishes in the temporary or permanent water body can reduce the frequency and prevalence of mosquito borne diseases in this peri-urban area. Active participation of stakeholders, community volunteers and self-help group members are necessary to maximize community awareness and can improve the quality of life in this area.
Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made:
A general lack of health information and awareness among poor and marginalized groups can greatly reduce the demand for healthcare services. A good way to win the battle against mosquito-borne diseases would be to improve economic levels of populations living in developing countries such as the one where this study took place. This therefore demands that effort should be geared towards intensification of mosquito-borne diseases public enlightenment programs and promotion of affordable treatment. The use of mass media for disseminating information on prevention, causes and management of mosquito-borne diseases among the respondents should be encouraged.
The Effect Of Mosquito On Man
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