Phytochemical Screening Of Coconut Water Extract

Project and Seminar Material for Biology

Phytochemical Screening Of Coconut Water Extract


Abstract


Cocos nucifera (L.) (Arecaceae) is commonly called the “coconut tree” and is the most naturally widespread fruit plant on Earth. Throughout history, humans have used medicinal plants therapeutically, and minerals, plants, and animals have traditionally been the main sources of drugs. The constituents of C. nucifera have some biological effects, such as antihelminthic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities. Our objective in the present study was to review the phytochemical profile, pharmacological activities, and toxicology of C. nucifera to guide future preclinical and clinical studies using this plant. This study was carrued out to examine the phytochemical screening of cocnut water extract. Some uses of the plant were partially confirmed by previous studies demonstrating analgesic, antiarthritic, antibacterial, antipyretic, antihelminthic, antidiarrheal, and hypoglycemic activities. In addition, other properties such as antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cardioprotective, antiseizure, cytotoxicity, hepatoprotective, vasodilation, nephroprotective, and anti-osteoporosis effects were also reported. Because each part of C. nucifera has different constituents, the pharmacological effects of the plant vary according to the part of the plant evaluated.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content
  • Table Of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background Of Study
  • 1.2 Research Objective
  • 1.3 Significance Of Study
  • 1.4 Scope Of Study
  • 1.5 Definition Of Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Cocos Nucifera
  • 2.1.1 Description
  • 2.1.2 Taxonomy
  • 2.1.3 Classification
  • 2.1.4 Cultivation
  • 2.2 Technical Requirement Of Coconut Cultivation
  • 2.2.1 Agro-Climate Requirements
  • 2.2.2 Soil
  • 2.2.3 Selection Of Site
  • 2.2.4 Preparation Of Land
  • 2.2.5 Spacing
  • 2.2.6 Harvesting
  • 2.3 Traditional Uses Of Coconut
  • 2.4 Medicinal Uses Of Coconut
  • 2.5 Economic Importance Of Coconut
  • 2.6 Extraction
  • 2.6.1 Type
  • 2.7 Bioactive Constituents In Medicinal Plants

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials And Methods

  • 3.1 Methods

Chapter Four

4.0 Discussion And Results

  • 4.1 Phytochemistry
  • 4.2 Pharmacological Activities Of Extracts, Fractions, And Isolated Constituents
  • 4.3 Phytochemical Composition Of Coconut Water

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of Study

Natural phytochemicals derived from medicinal plants have gained significant recognition in the potential management of several human clinical conditions, including cancer “Phyto” is the Greek word for plant. There are many “familiar” of phytochemicals and they help the human body in a variety of ways. Phytochemicals may protect human from a host of disease. They are non-nutritive plant chemicals that have protective or disease preventive properties, plant produce these chemicals to protect it but recent research demonstrates that many phytochemicals can protect humans against diseases. There are many phytochemicals in fruits and herbs and each works differently. The coconut, cocos nucifera L, has been described as the “tree of life” or tree of heaven and nature’s greatest gift to man. Each part of the coconut tree can be used to produce items of value for the community. Cocos nucifera L is a dominant type of tree belonging to the family Arecaceae (palm). The common name of cocos nucifera is coconut or coconut palm. Coconut is believed to have its origins in the Ido-Malayan region from where its spread throughout to tropics. The coconut palm is monoecious, i.e. with male and female flowers on the same inflorescence, called a spadix, that develops within a woody sheathe or spathe. At flowering, the spathe splits length wise to expose the spadix. Each spadix consists of a man axis 1-1.5m (3-3-5ft) in length with 40-60 branches or spikelets bearing the flowers linder favorable growing conditions first flowering occurs about 4-5 years after planting.
Once a palm reaches maturity, a spadix (flower spike) is produced in every leaf axil between 12 and 15 spadices are produced throughout the year at fairly regular intervals, although drought conditions can delay the emergence of the spadix or cause it to abort, the number of female flowers per spadix varies. Since the floral primordial are initiated 12 months before the spadix emerges, the number is correlated to the growing conditions (weather, nutrition) 12 months prior to emergence from the literature survey, it is quite evident that the nflowers of cocos nucifera has potent therapentic value on the area of anti bacterial, larvicidal, antioxidant, dietary anti inflammatory, hepatoprotective and anti cancer. The present investigation aims to focus on the identification of some useful phytochemicals constituents cocos nucifera water extract.


1.2 Research Objective

The aim of this work is to identify the phytochemicals present in cocos nucifera water extract. The specific objectives are to carry out phytochemical analysis on coconut water and also:

  1. Collecting drying and pulverization of coconut water.
  2. Extraction of coconut water using distilled water by maceration method
  3. Determination of phytochemicals present in extract of the plant.

1.3 Significance Of Study

This work will identify the phytochemicals present in cocos nucifera water extract and in the process it will provide information for future researchers, suggestion for further studies, and contribution to the body of knowledge on that subject matter.


1.4 Scope Of Study

This study covered the phytochemical screening of coconut water extract. It involved the collection, drying and pulverization of coconut water; the extraction of coconut water using distilled water by maceration method and the determination of phytochemicals present in extract of the plant.


1.5 Definition Of Study

Phytochemicals:

(from Greek phyto, meaning “plant”) are chemicals produced by plants through primary or secondary metabolism. … Phytochemicals under research can be classified into major categories, such as carotenoids and polyphenols, which include phenolic acids, flavonoids, and stilbenes/lignans.Phytochemicals are non-nutritive plant chemicals that have protective or disease preventive properties. They are non-essential nutrients, meaning that they are not required by the human body for sustaining life.

Coconut:

The large oval brown seed of a tropical palm, consisting of a hard woody husk surrounded by fibre, lined with edible white flesh and containing a clear liquid.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

Coconut water, being a refreshing beverage, provides important health benefits. The chemical components which contribute to its bioactivity are essential to the plant industry, biotechnology and biomedical fields. Undoubtedly, cytokinins are currently the most important components in coconut water. Significant advances were made in understanding the biological functions of the various cytokinins in both plant and human systems. The potential anti-cancer properties of specific cytokinins could bring encouraging and novel perspectives in finding cures for the different types of cancers. The recent discovery of other medicinal values of coconut water signifies a good potential in improving human health. Better insights and understanding of the functions and properties of the individual components of coconut water will, therefore, help us to better utilise this marvellous and multi-dimensional liquid with special biological properties from nature.


5.2 Recommendation

The phytochemical composition of coconut water is affected by several factors. Jackson et al. showed that coconut water of different coconut varieties contains different concentration of compounds, and that the chemical contents also varied during the different stages of maturity [109]. Soil and environmental conditions also affect the chemical profile of coconut water. A study which was done in Brazil demonstrated that the physical properties of coconut water were affected by varying nitrogen and potassium application [110]. Hence, future studies should be carried out to determine the factors that produce the desirable chemical composition for a specific purpose. Breeding studies can also be carried out to produce coconut water enriched with specific chemical compounds.
Although coconut water is already well studied in terms of its chemical content, there may still be unknown solutes which contribute to its special biological effects. With the development of more advanced detection techniques, screening can be intensified to detect novel compounds of medicinal values present in coconut water.


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