Studies On Wine Production From Coconut Fruit (Cocos Nucifera Lin.)

Project and Seminar Material for Biology

Studies On Wine Production From Coconut Fruit (Cocos Nucifera Lin.)


Abstract


Coconut fruit is a tropical fruit with short shelf-live due to prevailing temperature and humid condition in tropical areas like Benue state Nigeria. Consequently, production of wine from fruit may help reduce the level of postharvest loss and increase the range in type of wines. This study undertook production of wine from coconut fruit. Several parameters were determined. Colony counts of the yeast cells during coconut fermentation in cfu/ml showed the highest colony counts of yeast cells of 4.3 x 103 cfu/ml. the pH of the fermenting wine moved from 4.77 at 0hr to 2.79 at 168hrs suggesting it became more acidic and likely to be more inhibitory to spoilage microorganism and gives fermenting yeast a competitive advantage. The temperature of the fermenting wine did not show major variation from time 0hr to 168hrs, however the specific gravity decreased with increased in time 0hr to 168hrs. The alcoholic content was 5.81 after 168hrs of fermentation period. More research is however required to determine the shelf stability of this wine produced in Nigeria.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background To The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives Of The Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
  • 2.3 Comparative Studies Of Wine

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials And Methods

  • 3.1 Materials, Tools And Equipment
  • 3.2 Preparation Of Coconut Wine
  • 3.4 Sensory Evaluation
  • 3.5 Statistical Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background To The Study

Coconut is the fruit produced by the coconut palm (Cocosnucifera) which belongs to the family of Arecaceae. Coconut is found in tropical regions generally within 22°N and S of the equator and most commonly near the sea coast. The coconut palm is found throughout the west tropical lowlands but will grow anywhere if there are sufficient rain and warmth. It has been known for thousands of years and nobody knows its original home. Perhaps the most likely places are Malaysia or Indonesia, but one thing is certain, it has been spread through the tropics almost entirely by man and has become a typical feature [1].

There is increasing scientific evidence that supports the role of coconut water in health and medicinal applications. Coconut water is one of the world’s most versatile natural product[2]. This beverage is well-known for its health and medicinal value. This contains unique chemical composition of sugars, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and phytohormones and a rich source of electrolytes and natural salts, especially potassium and magnesium. It is low calorie and nearly fat-free, low in sugar as well as containing a little fiber to moderate absorption and is rich in cytokinins, or plant hormones, which have anti-aging, anti-cancer, and anti-thrombolytic effects in humans [2]. Through these nutritional values on hand, young coconut water can be considered valuable food product.
When the nut is opened and exposed, the pH of the juice, usually between 5.0 and 6.0, stimulates rapid microbial growth and discoloration due to polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) enzymes [3]. Preservation of this kind of beverage includes freezing, pasteurization, ultrafiltration, or the use of additives [4],[5],[6]. The use of stabilization technology which involves shorter periods of high temperature can result to undesired physicochemical modifications in food [7]. Thus, there is a need to innovate preservation techniques in order to add value to the young coconut water and the coconut itself, in general.

There are many literatures about wine making from many fruits but little or no work on wine production from the coconut water is available. Researchers have tried producing wine out of pineapple, watermelon, grapes, strawberry, orange and other fruits [8],[9], [10], [11]. The wine that is widely drunk out of coconut is well-known as tuba wine but they are produced from the fermented coconut sap [12].

Typically, commercial wine and locally homemade wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented fruit juices, various types of yeast, sugar, and additives. In the absence of oxygen, yeast consumes the sugar and converts them into alcohol known as ethanol through the process of fermentation. Moreover, additives contribute by giving distinct taste or flavor to enhance the quality of the wine [13]. Additionally, temperature and pH are the factors influencing yeast autolysis. In wine, the process occurs at low pHs (3 to 4), and at relatively low temperatures (e.g., 15 to 18°C). Permitting the wine to be in contact with the yeast for a longer period makes the beneficial effects of autolysis [14].

It is at this point that the possibility of producing wine from young coconut water is considered in this study. The positive result of this study will hopefully catalyze similar researches on other fruit juices, thus, making them a quality new product that will open doors for sustainable development and economy not only in the province of Oriental Mindoro but as well as the entire country.


1.2 Statement Of Problem

Literature is replete with wine making from many fruits but little or no work on wine production from the coconut fruit (endosperm) is found. The coconut wine that is widely drank is from the fermentation of the coconut sap obtained by tapping the coconut palm which ultimately results in the death of the palm tree, thus, limiting our natural resources. Wine plays almost an indispensable role in the life of man ranging from social function, religious rites, rituals as well as economic benefits to produce and merchants. In religious sector, wine had been held sacred throughout history (Hallgenten, 2006).

Most wines produced in Africa and Nigeria in particular, are preserved with chemicals such as bottled palm wine from Nigeria institute of oil palm research (NIFOR). Such chemical preservatives – sodium nitrate and benzoate may be toxic to humans. It is the fear of use of chemical preservatives for increasing the shelf-life of wines that prompted this research. This research was aimed at producing wine from coconut for immediate consumption or preservation using refrigeration whenever the need arises.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

This research was aimed at producing wine from coconut fruit (Cocos nucifera) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for immediate consumption or preservation using refrigeration whenever the need which will also be healthy and refreshing drink. To achieve this, it will describe the quality attributes and level of acceptability of coconut wine and commercial wine in terms of color, aroma and taste. Moreover, it also aimed to compare the acceptability differences of coconut wine and commercial wine in terms of its quality attributes.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

The developed young coconut wine has light pale color, powerful aroma and sweet taste. Its taste and color are the most appealing attributes of the young coconut wine. On the other hand, acceptability differences in the quality attributes of aroma and color are comparable, with the commercial wine having a darker color and more powerful aroma which make it more appealing. However, in terms of taste, the young coconut wine is more acceptable due to its sweet taste. Generally, the commercial wine is more acceptable. Local farmers and processors will be encouraged to gather more coconut to be utilized into a valuable product which is the coconut wine.


5.2 Recommendation

Based on the findings of the study, commercialization and standardization of this product may give a big contribution to the economy of the province, given that it is abundant and has a quality and distinct taste. Moreover, this study can serve as a basis for other related researches regarding wines. Further studies regarding coconut wine production should also be conducted to strengthen its market value.


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