Design And Implementation Of A Computerized Antenatal Information System

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science and Computer Engineering

Design And Implementation Of A Computerized Antenatal Information System


Abstract


The Antenatal unit in the outpatient Department of any hospital letters for medical advices and treatments to payment mothers before delivery. Antenatal care is all about material and fetal care, to see that the baby is developing without malformation and giving mothers advice an what to eat, type of exercise needed scanning and pathology rest. This project work tends to design and implement a system (computerized) that offers information on Antenatal care as of when due (Just-in-time) to effect discussion making in specially the case study which is Parklane Specialist Hospital Enugu that will pursue and meet the aim of the existing manual Antenatal information system but with high reliability, accuracy, speed and less cost.


Organization Of Work


This work in organized in seven chapters

  1. Chapter 1 highlight the purpose aims and objectives of the study, statement of the problem scope and limitation of the study and definition of terms related to the study
  2. Chapter 2 review the related literature to the topic
  3. Chapter 3 researches and analyses the existing manual system Antenatal care Information together with the fact finding method used, organizational structure, objectives of the existing system, input, process and output analyses, the problem of the existing system and solution to the inherent problem facing the existing system.
  4. Chapter 4 Delanson the Design of the new system with input and output specifications
  5. Chapter 5 talls on the new system implementation testing, training of staff the new system, conversion method.
  6. Chapter 6 this chapter talks on the documentation of the new system based on the 3 aspects of system documentation viz user documentation, operator documentation and program documentation.
  7. The Final Chapter 7: deals on commendation by the author, conclusion of the work and reference.

Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Abstract
  • Organization of the work
  • Table of content

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Problems of the study
  • 1.4 The purpose of the study
  • 1.5 Scope of the study
  • 1.6 Aims and objectives
  • 1.7 Limitations of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

Literature Review


Chapter Three

Description and analyses of the existing system fact finding methods used

  • 3.1 Input analyses
  • 3.3.2 Process analyses
  • 3.3.3 Output analyses
  • 3.4 Organization structure
  • 3.5 Problems of the existing system
  • 3.6 Objectives of the existing system

Chapter Four

Design of the New System

  • 4.1 Input specification and design
  • 4.2 Output specification and design
  • 4.3 Procedure chart
  • 4.4 System flowchart
  • 4.5 System requirement

Chapter Five

System Implementation and Programming

  • 5.1 Program design
  • 5.2 Program flowchart
  • 5.3 Program codes
  • 5.4 Test runs
  • 5.5 Program testing & implementation

Chapter Six

Documentation Of The New System

  • 6.1.1 Program documentation
  • 6.1.2 User documentation
  • 6.1.3 Operator documentation

Chapter Seven

  • 7.1 Recommendation and conclusion
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

An information system provides information for decision makers in any organization, which are required for the great functions of planning coordinating and controlling, therefore it is necessary to discover an adequate means of making the information available to everyone concerned, this is because for decision to be made correctly and timely the information must be consistent, accurate and reliable (just-in-time) to affect the operation for which it is being provided.

Thus, this project work design and implementation of a computerized information system of Antenatal care is aimed of provided necessary information about all operations. The antenatal unit which are very necessary for proper control and coordination of the unit.


1.1 Background Of The Study

The case study of the project work is parklane general Hospital. The Antenatal unit is an aspect of the outpatient department. The Antenatal unit is in charge of carrying for material and fetal well being before childbirth. This section of the hospital is facing hitches presently due to the manual method of information processing, as most pregnant mother don’t enjoy good and timely services. Presently apart from time leg, the case study meet it objectives any way, but not reliably and timely.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

The major function of the Antenatal unit is to cater for material and fetal well being until childbirth, which is why the pregnant mother visits the unit. This is the project work is on design implementation of an antenatal information system that will help in timely and useful information processing with its case study as the Park Lane Specialist Hospital, Enugu, Enugu State.


1.3 Purpose Of The Study

There are setbacks in information dissemination and flow in park lane Specialist Hospital Antenatal unit thus the research felt the need to embark on this study in other to identify and provide solutions to those setback as the objectives of the work include.

  1. The work will create on awareness of the ideal contents of Antenatal care which include:- Preconception counseling, Assessment of risk factors, Assessment of fetal well being etc.
  2. The work will be able to provide information on educating especially first time pregnant mothers about normal discomforts of pregnancy, Emotional aspects (including post-nata depression so that these mothers are being reassured and fears driver away.
  3. The study will be able to incorporate a software that can keep track of information about Antenatal patients and their History (medical examinations)
  4. The study will be able to clear the doubts of the relevance of Antenatal care.
  5. And lastly the work is centered on educating mothers, providing information to health care agents and the antenatal unit for proper information flow.

1.4 Scope Of The Study

this work only covers the provision of information related to the Antenatal unit of the outpatient department of the hospital.


1.5 Aims And Objectives

The aims and objectives of the system are to

  1. Enhance information availability to doctors about patients and to Antenatal patients about antenatal care.
  2. To enhance access to information about Antenatal patients i.e quick information retrieval and adequate storage.
  3. Automate Antenatal mother registration in the Hospital
  4. Provide an accurate, Reliable and desire information for the management, patients of parklane specialist hospital and also provide a best way of information processing retrieval and storage for future reference.

1.6 Limitation Of The Study

This works perfection was limited greatly by some constraints which includes

1. Time Constraints:

This semester was short and the duration for the complete of the project was also short and marred proper research of information based on this topic

2. Cost Constraints:

Caring to the fact that the case study was located very far from the school the researcher is based, transportation cost was much.

3. Information Gathering:

Was a problem as some staff and doctors were not interested in providing information to me which they considered their little secrets.

4. Lack Of Research Material:

The researcher find it difficult to get related books in the library which were lacking as at the time.

These are the limitation to the work that hindered a perfect result but the research result was really interestingly impressing and will serve as a very good reference for future research of this life.


1.8 Definition Of Term Related To The Topic

Amniocentesis:

This test is usually done around the 16th week of pregnancy. A needle is passed through the mother’s abdomen into the uterus, under ultrasound guidance and a sample an amnesic fluid surrounding the baby is withdrawn. The fluid contains substances from the baby, which can be tested for certain conditions such as neural tube defects and cells which can be grown in culture. The cells can be tested for down’s syndrome and other diromosal and inherited disorders.

Amniotic Fluid:

This is the fluid surrounding the fetus in the uterus which protects it during pregnancy and labour. It contains substances and cells from the baby, which can be removed by amniocentesis and examined.

Anomaly:

A malformation or abnormality in any part of the baby;

Chorionic Villus Test:

This test usually known as CVS (CV sampling) or CV Biopsy is a prenatal test which can be preformed early in pregnancy from 11 weeks. A sample of tissue that will form the placenta is taken either through the cervix or the abdomen.

Chromosomes:

The thread like bodies found in all living cells which carry the genetic information. Normal human cell contain 23 pair of chromosomes.

Chromosome Abnormality:

A change in the number or arrangement of the normal 23 pairs of chromosomes.

Combined Test:

Between 11 and 13 weeks of pregnancy, a combination of the nuchal sean measurement and a blood sample from the mother which measures the concentration of two serums; pregnancy associated plasma protein-A and frex Beta human chorionic gonadotrophin together with the mother age are used to estimate her chances of having a pregnancy with downs syndrome.

Congenital Abnormality:

An abnormality presently at birth although not necessarily hereditary.

D & C (Diletation and Curreltage):

A procedure in which the cervix is gently opened and a loop shaped instrument is inserted to scrap away the miner living of the uterus D&C (Dilatation and Evacuation) pregnancies can sometimes be terminated under general anesthetic using this technique on which the cervix is dilated and the uterine contents are removed by suction.

Down’s Syndrome:

A chromosome abnormality in which these are 3 copies of chromosomes 21 instead of 2. It is also called trisomy 21. The condition is characterized by distinctive facial feature and varying degrees of learning difficulties and is often associated with laying heart problems.

Edwards Syndrome:

A chromosome abnormality in which there are 3 copies of chromosome 18 instead of 2. it is also called trisomy 18 the condition means that the baby may not survive pregnancy or may have a short life and require specialized nursing.

ERPC:

Evacuation of the retained products of conception this is done following a spontaneous or induced abortion. The placenta may be retained following a late termination and needs to be removed surgically the phrase is felt to be rather callously.

False Negative:

Some women are told that tests have shown that their babies does not have a problem, only to find out when the baby is born that there is not true this is call a false Negative and is not a common accurance.

False Positive:

This is the opposite of false negative.

Gene:

This unit of a chromosome is which particular characteristics are inherited from one or both parents.

Genetic Abnormality:

A disorder arising from an abnormality in the chromosome which mayor may not be hereditary.

Genetic Counselling:

Advice and information provided by experts on the detection and chance of fetal abnormalities and disorders.

Hereditary:

Characteristics transmitted through families, by genes within the chromosomes of the fertilized egg and sperm.

Hydrocephalus:

This is due to an imbalance n the production and adsorption of cerebrospinal fluid(ISF) this causes the ventricles in the brain to swell, causing pressure on the surrounding tissue.

Inherited:

Having a hereditary characteristic, this can be color a personality type or a disease.

Integrated Tests:

This integrated test is performed in two stages in the first stage, of around 12 weeks of pregnancy and the second around 15 or 16 weeks.

Neural Tube Defects (NTD):

An abnormality where the spine has not close over the central nervous tissue. Of this ‘Lesson’ is of the head, the condition is called Anencephaly and is incompatible with life. If it occurs anywhere lower down the spine it is called spine bifid and results in varying degrees of physical and mental disabilities, ultrasound scanning is the way in which these abnormalities are conformed.

Nuchal Scan:

Between 11-13 weeks of pregnancy, the fluid at the bad of the babies neck, the nuchal translucency from the scan.

Patau’s Syndrome:

A chromosome abnormality in which there are 3 copies of chromosome 13 resisted of 2 it is also called trisomy 13. Babies with a full trisomy 13 may not survive pregnancy.

Scans:

Also ultrasound scanning to confirm abnormalities of the fetus.

Syndrome:

Combination of symptoms sign groups together to form a disorder.

Tripple Test:

This test has many names, it may be called the lead; text, the Bart’s test or the Blood test a sample of blood is taken usually between 16 –18 weeks of pregnancy. The stage of pregnancy is best estimated by an ultrasound-dating scan.

Trisomy:

Were there are 3 chromosomes rather than the usual pair, this is called a trisomy.

Ultrasound Scanning:

This is a technique used routinely in most hospitals is monitor the growth and development of the baby before 16 weeks use useful for dating the pregnancy land are able to detect some major malformations) detailed scanning of 18 – 21 weeks should show up any major deformation as well as some minor ones.

PAPP-A

Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein- A

Free & HCG

Free Beta Human Chorinic Gonadotropthin

CSF

Ceretsrospinal Fluid.

WHO

World Health Organization

ACM

Antenatal Care Model

Information

Processed Facts

Data

Raw facts.


Chapter Seven


Recommendation and Conclusion

7.1 Recommendation

Comparing the operations of the existing manual system and the new system through analyzes and evaluation indicates that the computerized system has the following advantages over the existing system.

  1. The need for high degree of accuracy is satisfied by the use of computer in Ante-natal information system.
  2. Processing cycles that repeat themselves over and again are ideally sited for computer.
  3. The computer is specifically suited to process large amount of Antenatal patients information.
  4. The computer can perform the most complex processes with high degree of accuracy and reliability of output.
  5. The speed of job processing by computer is commendable.
  6. Cost with reduced processing time, accuracy and higher job volume, cost is greatly reduced thus based on the above listed advantages.

I commend that the computerized information system of Ante-natal care in Park Lane Specialist Hospital should firm particularly areas where processes are cumbersome.


7.2 Conclusion

To save cost, improve accuracy and reliability and provide just in time (JIT) results and information for decision makers in any organization as timely as to effect any process in hand, computer use should be employed not only in the use of a computerized Ante-natal information system, it is also relevant to any organization that hopes to survive the technological trend.


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