Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Levels In Selected Industrial Effluents From Onitsha

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology (SLT)

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Levels In Selected Industrial Effluents From Onitsha


Industrial effluents were collected from paint industry, ink & pigment industry, bread industry, soap industry, cream industry in the month of September 2012.The effluent samples collected were analyzed for some physio-chemical and microbiological parameters which include Conductivity 19.5-25.2(us/cm), Total Alkalinity 35-40(mg/l), DO 5.2-5.7 (mg/l), COD 120- 186(mg/l), Turbidity 62.2-105 (NTU), Nitrate 4.10-14.8 (mg/l) ,Sulphite 36.54-233.1(mg/l), Sulphate 7-9(mg/l) Silica 5.1-7.5(mg/l) Salinity 0.1-4.2 (%), Phenols 0.10.26 (mg/l), pH 5.6-8.3(mg/l), Sulphide 0.23-0.25 (mg/l) ,Nitrite 0.1155-1.914(mg/l),Ammonium <0.01 (mg/l) .FEPA standard value was used.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Aim and objectives of the study
  • 1.3 Scope of the study
  • 1.4 Significance of the study
  • 1.5 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

  • 2.1 Literature Review
  • 2.1 Environmental pollution and itโ€™s implications
  • 2.2 Nature and characteristics of effluents
  • 2.3 Sources of industrial effluents
  • 2.4 Oxygen balance in the streams
  • 2.5 The use of water bodies as sink for industrial effluent
  • 2.7 Impact of industrial effluents

Chapter Three

  • 3.1 Research methodology
  • 3.2 Determination of parameters

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Presentation of results and discussion

Chapter Five

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One

1.1 Introduction

Onitsha, the commercial nerve of Anambra state, is located in the South-Eastern part of Nigeria. With a population of 840,000 (2006, source: National population commission report). Onitsha is the largest city in the state. The city has many industries, ranging from small to large scale enterprises.

These industries are scattered in almost all the suburbs of the city. They are engaged in the manufacture of a variety of products including alcoholic, beverages, soft drinks, nails, foam mattresses, lumber and plywood. There is also a slaughter house for animals (Sarfo Afriyie 1999). Despite the economic gains derived from these industries routine visits made by the federal Environmental Protection agency (air, water, and land) has shown that most of these industries sink their wastes.

Some of the food processing industries, including food and beverages, breweries, discharge untreated waste water into the public drainage system or River Niger. This disposal practice could cause potential or severe pollution problems to the water bodies since the effluents contains organic compounds that require oxygen for degradation (Sarfo-Afriyie, 1999).

Chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurement is simple and can reliably be carried out in the laboratory. The COD is a measure of the oxygen equivalent of the organic matter of a sample that is susceptible to oxidation by a strong oxidant. The dichromate reflux method has been preferred over procedures using other oxidants because of superior oxidizing ability with a wide variety of samples, and ease of manipulation (Boyle, 1997).

Also if water of high organic matter content or biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) value flows into a river, the bacteria in the river will oxidize the organic matter consuming oxygen from the water faster than it dissolves back in from the air. If this happens, fish will die from lack of oxygen, a consequence known as fish kill. A stream must have a minimum of about 2 mg/l of dissolved oxygen to maintain higher life forms. In addition to this life-sustaining aspect, oxygen is important because the end product of chemical and biochemical reactions in anaerobic systems often produce aesthetically displeasing colours, tastes and odours in water.

Water is a most precious resource. The cleanliness of lakes, rivers and oceans is one of the pressing goals for environmental protection. The balance of nature depends therefore, on the comprehensiveness of the approach to solve the problem of waste water disposal.

1.2 Aim And Objectives Of The Study

The aim of this study is to verify the chemical oxygen Demand (COD) level of the precise study areas. This aim will be achieved by seeking to accomplish the following objectives.

  1. To identify the various types of wastage/effluents being produced in the study area.
  2. To assess the effluent of the selected industries, through analysis of some selected water quality parameters such as COD.
  3. To compare the result with national and international standard limit.
  4. To evaluate various quantitative and qualitative data associated with industrial waste effluents.

1.3 Scope Of Study

This is a study of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels in selected industrial effluents from Onitsha. The study will focus on the laboratory analysis of the industrial effluent concern, by a systematic analysis of samples for the purpose of this study, effluent from five industries have been designated for sample analysis and these industries include:

  1. Jacbon Industries Limited,
  2. Markson Chemical Industries (WIA) Limited,
  3. Dueman Chemical Industries Limited,
  4. Chi Beverages Limited And
  5. Gemok Cream Industries Limited

1.4 Significance Of The Study

  1. One thing is to create awareness on the hazardous effects of these industrial effluents, another thing is to find out ways and proffer solutions to reduce the effects to a minimum.
  2. This study has become very significant because it will help to find effective solutions to reduce the (COD) chemical oxygen demand level in industries effluents.
  3. The work will create awareness in the industrial/manufacturing sector by making them know of the dangers which they were hitherto ignorant of (COD) chemical oxygen demand.
  4. This work will help to inform and encourage the general public and the inhabitants of Onitsha in particular, on environmental effects of industrial effluents.

1.5 Definition Of Terms


It is an outflowing of water or gas from a natural body of water, or from human-made structure.

Water Quality:

Refers to the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water.

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD):

The COD is a measure of the oxygen equivalent of the organic matter content of a sample that is susceptible to oxidation by a strong oxidant.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD):

This is a measure of the quantity of oxygen require for the oxidation of biodegrable organic matter present in water by aerobic biochemical action.

Dissolve Oxygen:

It refers to oxygen gas that is dissolved in water. Fish โ€œbreatheโ€ oxygen just as land animals do. However, fish are able to absorb oxygen directly from the water into their blood stream using gills, whereas land animals use lungs to absorb oxygen from the atmosphere.


It is a measure of the ability of water to pass an electric current.

Chapter Five

5.1 Conclusion And Summary

Untreated effluent are highly toxic to plant and human being. This is of environmental concern. If not taken care of and becomes a threat to biosphere. An appropriate control technology is needed to eliminated or reduce pollution arising from industrial process and operations. Son in the present study, tannery effluent was diluted and used to assess the plant growth.

5.2 Recommendation

  1. Reduction of waste load can be done in several ways
  2. Prevention of production of waste
  3. Development of new clean processing methods
  4. Treatment of waste(end of pipe treatment)

For a reduction of environmental problems that occur because of discharge of waste improved house keeping practices and management practices in industries are more important than end of pipe waste treatment. good house keeping practices in industries are not easily to describe but it is clear that as the amount of water used is major factor in all industries if more water is used ,total waste water production per unit of product processed may increase manifold proper water, management is one of the first aspects deserving attention.

Further more environmental problems may also be reduced by converting as much waste as possible into a solid product instead of washing the waste away into the waste water .in general solid waste is fairly easy to control ,requires less energy and is cheaper than waste treatment . in a few developed countries ,environmental problems have led to the formulation of high quality standards for discharged water to meet these standards a combination of anaerobic and aerobic is required often couple to nutrient removal system as most of the air pollution is related to fossil energy consumption ,preventing as a method to reduce environmental pollution is even more important than it is for waste water .for some component s (e.g voc,dust) methods exist for the treatment of polluted air, however frequently at high costs.

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