Antidiabetic Efficacy Of (Vernonia Amygdaline) Bitter Leaf Plant Extracts On Diabetic Albino Rats

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Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT


This project research work is being dedicated to God almighty for his infinite mercy, comfort, protection, grace and guidance throughout this academic section of national diploma (ND).

We also dedicate this work to our beloved and lovely supervisor Mrs. Peter Ogu Perpetual. for her supports. We say thank to you all.


This is the greatest opportunity to appreciate the effort of our beloved parents, Mr. and Mrs. G.C Nwabueze and Mr. and Mrs. F. Onwumelu and our brothers and sisters who helped to contribute for making sure that we achieve our goals as a successful national diploma holder.

We will not fail to acknowledge our able and capable supervisor and our head of department, Dr. Mrs. Chika Unegbu and other of our departmental lecturers who never relented in any way to help us especially in our academic pursuit and moral advice.


The study evaluated the efficacies of the ethanolic extracts of the leaf, stem – bark and root of Vernonia amydalina plant on alloxan – induced diabetic allano rats. Twenty (20) albino rats were divided equally into four groups comprising of five (5) animals in each group. Group A was treated with leaf extract, group B was treated with stem – bark extract, group C was treated with root extract.

The effect of aqueous leaf extract of vernonia amygdalina on blood glucose of alloxan induced diabetic albino rats was evaluated. Animals received daily oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina for 14 days. The effect of 200mg/kg dose was studied during the treatment period.

There was a significant reduction in blood glucose concentration (p < 0.05) with the mean blood glucose of the different groups having 5.3 ± 0.33 for normal control, 7.0 ± 0.40 for diabetic control and 4.5 ± 0.24 for diabetic treated. There was also 15.38 percent reduction in body weight of the rats.

Based on these results, it was suggested that aqueous leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina has hypoglycemic effect. Further researches are therefore needed to identify all the hypoglycemic inducing compounds in Vernonia amygdalina.

Table Of Contents

  • Content page
  • Title page i
  • Declaration ii
  • Certification iii
  • Approval page iv
  • Dedication v
  • Acknowledgements vi
  • Abstract vii
  • Table of contents viii

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Medicinal Plants
  • 1.2 Vernonia Amygdalina (Bitter Leaf)
  • 1.3 Research On Extracts And Chemical Constituents
  • 1.4 Local Uses Of Bitter Leaf

Chapter Two

  • Literature Review
  • 2.0 Diabetes
  • 2.1 Types Of Diabetes
  • 2.2 Signs And Symptoms Of Diabetes
  • 2.3 Diabetic Emergencies
  • 2.4 Chemotherapeutic Treatment Of Diabetes
  • 2.5 Nutritional Management Of Diabetes

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Material And Methods
  • 3.1 Methodology
  • 3.2 Collection And Preparation Of Plant Extracts
  • 3.3 Experimental Animals
  • 3.4 Induction Of Experimental Diabetes
  • 3.5 Experimental Design
  • 3.6 Collection Of Sample Analysis

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Result And Discussion
  • 4.1 Data Presentation And Analysis
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations
  • 5.1 Recommendations
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • References

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

The use of indigenous plants in the management of diseases has been a common practice over the years. Few of the plants have received adequate scientific scrutiny. The study and understanding of ethno – botanical information, chemical constituents of plants and the therapeutic application of the plant drug will help in understanding efficiency of the plant as a potent remedy; extend our knowledge of their pharmacological activity, active principles, dosage and administration (Unger et al., 2008).

Diabetes mellitus has been defined by the world health organization (WHO), on the basis of laboratory findings as a fasting venous plasma glucose concentration greater than 7.8 mmol/l (140mg/dl) or greater than 11.1 mmol/l (200mg/dl) two hours after a carbohydrate meal or two hours after an oral ingestion of the equivalent of 75g glucose, even if the fasting concentration is normal (Nwanjo and Nwokoro, 2004).

It is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycaemia and glycosuria due to absolute or relative lack of insulin (Ononogbu, 1996).Medicinal plants have formed the basis of health care throughout the world since the earliest days of humanity and are still widely used and have considerable importance in international trade (Unger et al., 2008). In certain African countries for instance, up to 90% of the population still relies exclusively on plants as a source of medicines (hostettmann et al., 2000). As a consequences, the World Health Organization (WHO) had in one of its charters in Geneva recommended further investigation into this area, particularly, as it concerns chronic and debilitating disease such as diabetes mellitus (WHO, 1980).

A complex disease like diabetes mellitus, where little is talked about in aspects of prevention and curation, but rather management, there is an increased focus on plants in the search for appropriate hypoglycaemic / antihyperglycaemic agents (Ebong et al, 2008). Firstly, because of leads provided by traditional medicine to natural products that may be better treatments than currently used conventional drugs (Nwanjo et al., 2004). Secondly the plants by secondary metabolic means contain a variety of herbal and non-herbal ingredients that are thought to act on a variety of targets by various modes and mechanisms (Tiwari and Rao, 2002) given the multi-factorial pathogen city of the disorders.

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How to nail it on the head during your project defence

You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic

Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.



Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy ( a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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