Causes, Effects And Remedies Of Poor Sanitary Condition In Some Secondary Schools

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Causes, Effects And Remedies Of Poor Sanitary Condition In Some Secondary Schools


Abstract


The purpose of this study is to find out the causes of poor sanitary condition in some selected secondary schools in Egor local government area of Edo state and suggest possible solution to such poor sanitary condition. The population for the study consisted of pupils in some selected secondary schools in Egor local government area of Edo state. Data is presented and analyzed using simple percentage. Data were collected by mean of questionnaire, the response to and questionnaire revealed the following finds. That there are poor toilet facilities in the schools. That the school have inadequate water supply. That the school means of refuse disposal is inadequate. That there are bushy plots around the school compound. That most of the secondary school have no health teacher. The researcher made some recommendation to the school in order to promote the health standard in the secondary in the secondary schools in Egor local government area. It is my ardent hope that the recommendation made will be implemented by the relevant authorities concerned.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of waste as well as the treatment and proper disposal of sewage or waste-water. Poor sanitation leads to hazards which can be physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agent of disease. Waste that can cause health problems including human and animal excreta, solid waste, domestic waste water (sewage or greywater) industrial waste and agricultural wastes. Most African cities are overcrowded, due to urban attraction. Little controlled urban growth lead to poor management of solid and liquid waste produced by cities. This leads to many problem of sanitation. The sanitation in these cities is generally dominated by self purification works. They often repress waste-water that trickles down in living quarter streets emitting strong foul odors. (strauss et al,2000).

The world health organization (WHO) define the term ‘sanitation’ as the provision of facilities and service for the safe disposal of human urine and feces. The world ‘sanitation’ also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and waste-water disposals. Poor sanitation which has always been associated with Africans has significant negative effects on the health of dwellers living on the environment. Lack of adequate sanitation in school as a major threat to student’s health. Many schools, particularly rural school had no latrine at all and of those with latrine most did not have separate latrines for male and female students. Lack of toilet especially separate toilet for girls was identified as the worst school experience for girls. This illustrate that the issue of poor sanitation is one of the special conditions which prevent female student from fuller participation and achievement in schools and to an extent force them out of school.

Following the recent implementation of the policy for universal primary education, the ratio of students to toilet facilities has reduced, which also discourage female students not attending class. Morbidity figures available according to update show that diarrhea, worm infection, eye and skin disease accounted for 25.5% of all outpatient visit to health centre, while malaria (another diseases related to poor sanitation) accounted for further 35.5% (ie a total of 59% of all outpatient visit are accounted for by poor sanitation). The level of nutritional stunting in the country is still among the worst rates of nutritional stunting in African and is partly attributed to the high incidence of diarrhea, due to poor sanitation.

The rate of poor sanitation condition in secondary schools in Egor local Government area of Edo State has increase in recent time due to some factors hindering adequate sanitation service within the school location. In most secondary schools in Egor local government area, poor sanitation gives a lot of infection the opportunity to spread; plarty of waste and excrete for the flies to breed on, and unsafe water to drink, wash with or swim in. among human parasite disease ranks second behind malaria in term of public health importance in tropical and sub-tropical areas.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Poor sanitation condition in secondary school in Egor local government area of Edo State has increase threat to the health of the students. The problem has persisted in spite of the enlightment toward the danger of poor sanitation in school environment. The extent of the condition in schools is only rarely investigated. This research work therefore is meant to fill the menace of environment pollution. Investment in environment safety is a serious issue, which needs immediate attention in order to reduce the spread of diseases among students in schools. It is therefore proper and appropriate to ensure that all sanitatary facilities in the school meant for sanitation should be put to use to reduce poor sanitary condition in schools in Egor local Government Area of Edo State.

The centre issues of the study therefore are; what are the factors that cause poor sanitation in schools? Does poor sanitation in schools leads to infection among students? What are the dangers of poor sanitation condition in schools? It is against this background that the study investigates the poor sanitation condition in secondary schools in Egor local Government Area of Edo State.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to investigate poor sanitation condition in secondary schools in Egor local Government Area of Edo State. Specifically the study examined the cause and the effect of poor sanitation in school and it’s dangerous to the health of students.

The study also seeks to find out the factors responsible for poor sanitation and how it affects students’ health thereby reducing their academic performance.


1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions are raised to guild the study;

  1. Does poor sanitation leads to spread of infection among students in secondary school?
  2. What are the dangers associated with poor sanitation in secondary schools?
  3. What are the factors that result to poor sanitation condition in schools?
  4. Does poor sanitation condition affect the academic performance of students in secondary schools?
  5. Is there any different between poor sanitation condition and student hygienic state of health?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study will create public awareness and enlightment campaign to secondary school across Egor Local Government Area of Edo State. Also this study will create awareness on the danger of poor sanitation condition. Government, school authorities and stakeholders will be alerted on the existence of poor sanitation conditions in schools and its effect on students health and assist policy makers to enact laws to prevent the high rate of poor sanitation condition and also reduce it to minimum level.

The study would further provide a valid document for researchers and educators as the finding may stimulate further studies in the study of poor sanitation condition in schools in Egor local Government Area of Edo State. There is no doubt that this study would add to the existing body of knowledge of sanitation.


1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study investigated the poor sanitation condition secondary schools in Egor local Government Area of Edo State. The study was delimited to only five secondary schools in Egor local Government Area of Edo State.


1.7 Limitation of Study

Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in scouring for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (questionnaires).

Time constraint; the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.8 Definition of Terms

The following operational terms are used in the study and how it is applicable to the research;

Condition:

The state of something with regard to its appearance, quality, or working order; have a significant influence on or determine (the manner or outcome of something).

Disposal:

The action or process of getting rid of something; The action or process of getting rid of something.

Poor:

Lacking sufficient items or money to live at a standard considered comfortable or normal in a society.

Refuse Disposal:

System, technique for the collection, treatment, and disposal of the solid wastes of a community. The development and operation of these systems is often called solid-waste management.

Sanitation:

Conditions relating to public health, especially the provision of clean drinking water and adequate sewage disposal.

Health:

Is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was on causes of poor sanitary condition in some selected secondary schools. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of poor sanitary condition in some selected secondary schools


5.2 Summary

This study was on the effect of causes of poor sanitary condition in some selected secondary schools. Four objectives were raised which included: To investigate the causes of poor sanitary condition in secondary schools in Egor local government area, to promote the development and proper use of health services, to highlight preventive measure in environmental hygiene, to make suggestion on how the health standard in secondary schools in Egor local government will be improved upon. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary schools in Egor local government area of Edo State. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made principals, vice principals administration, senior staffs and junior staffs were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


5.3 Conclusion

From the result of the study, it was concluded that environmental awareness significantly relates to school sanitation in terms of classroom sanitation, school compound sanction and provision of refuse dumps. That is, environment awareness leads to the maintenance of classroom sanitation, school compound sanitation and provision of refuse dumps. The later increases as the former is sustained and vice versa.


5.4 Recommendation

  1. Adequate measures should be put in place where environmental awareness is sustained in the secondary schools in Egor local government area. This will not only increase the principal and teachers awareness about environmental issues, but also sensitize the student. With this measure, every member of the school is carried along and school sanitation because a collective effort.
  2. Environmental experts should be brought to the schools once in a while to mount workshops or seminars on school sanitation. This will equip the school community with the necessary information and knowledge in the maintenance of a healthy school environment.

Causes, Effects And Remedies Of Poor Sanitary Condition In Some Secondary Schools


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Frequently Asked Questions


What can be done about poor sanitation conditions in schools?

Government, school authorities, and stakeholders will be alerted on the existence of poor sanitation conditions in schools and their effect on students’ health and assist policymakers to enact laws to prevent the high rate of poor sanitation conditions and also reduce it to a minimum level.

What are the effects of poor sanitation?

Poor sanitation leads to hazards that can be a physical, microbiological, biological, or chemical agents of disease. Waste that can cause health problems includes human and animal excreta, solid waste, domestic wastewater (sewage or greywater) industrial waste, and agricultural wastes.

How does poor sanitation affect girls’ participation in school?

This illustrates that the issue of poor sanitation is one of the special conditions which prevent female students from fuller participation and achievement in schools and to an extent force them out of school.

Why are secondary schools in Edo State facing poor sanitation?

The rate of poor sanitation conditions in secondary schools in the Egor Local Government Area of Edo State has increased in recent times due to some factors hindering adequate sanitation service within the school location. 

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