The Causes And Effect Of Flooding In Egor Local Government Area Of Edo State

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The Causes And Effect Of Flooding In Egor Local Government Area Of Edo State


Abstract


This project work is geared towards investigating the causes and effects of flooding in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State. The study area that is prone to flooding in Egor Local Government Area are thus, Siluko road, Ugbowo, Adolor and Uwelu Road.

Flooding has been seen as a process that has been seeking urgent attention from the government in these areas studied. The causes of flooding as well as the effects are adverse and the causes of flooding can be attributed to man’s activities on land and natural conditions. The ways by which flooding can be combated were traced and recommendations were made.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Flooding as one of environmental hazard has posses a serious danger of risk to lives and properties of peoples in their environment. Therefore flooding can be defined as the accumulation of excessive quantity of water in an area without flowing away easily.

It can also be defined as the accumulation of an abnormal large volume of water in an area, which has refused to percolate or flow away. Peter O. S. Ajayi (2001). The rapid increase of flooding had rendered agricultural and commercial activities even residential land use had been degraded or damaged in Egor Local Government Area. This has madder transportation in Egor difficult for the people of the area, even buildings in the area is rendered useless e.g. (teachers house) and low crop productivity in Egor Local Government Area due to leaching of the area.

Since early 1970’s, flooding has posed difficulties to land uses and occupation of such villages and towns found in this area. The causes of flooding in this area may have resulted as a result of man’s activities on the part of cattle rearers, which have caused different types of environmental degradation in the area. This had led to the collapse of building on the advance flooding in Egor (teachers house. Egor (Igbinaduwa quarters), and Ova quarters etc. as well as abandonment done to houses and plot of lands due to excessive flooding.


1.2 Statement of Problem

In recent times, flooding has rendered many houses inhabitants, farmland unproductive and caused a traffic congestions, damage to transportation and other roads in the area of study. The effect of flooding has led to deplorable condition of living of people I the area which had made many people either to evacuate or abandoned some houses, farming is no longer encouraged, commuters and transporters are faced with the problem of flooding of routes in the area concerned.

It is on this ground that the researcher intends to examine the causes and effects of flooding in this area of study.


1.3 Objective of the Study

  1. To identify the causes of flooding in the area.
  2. To examine the problems and effects of flooding in the area.
  3. To examine the impact of flooding on the people in the area.
  4. To suggest possible solutions to the problem of flooding in the area.

1.3 Research Hypothesis / Questions

Flooding might have been caused as a result of improper and inadequate planning of houses in the area result to the increase of flooding:

  1. That flooding has effects on traffic congestion/flooding in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State.
  2. That the absence of good drainage system is a contributing factors to flooding in Egor Local Government Area.
  3. That the over grazing is also contributing greatly to flooding in Egor Local Government Area.

1.4 Significance of the Study

  1. The findings of this study will be of important use at all time to students of geography, agriculture and town planners.
  2. The study will be a guide to the formulation of land use policies for the study area.
  3. The result of the study will help on how to prevent/control flooding and
  4. The study is seen to contribute to the development of the local government in particular and the state in general.

1.5 Scope of the Study

The study is limited crucially to the strict appraisal of the impact of flooding on land use, using Egor Local Government Area as a case study. Attempt would be made to identify the causes of these natural hazards, its effects on land use, its problems and solution to these problems.

Certainly, the area to deal with in this study is exclusively within Egor Local Government Area. It is however, limited to few selected areas and roads mostly affected by flooding in the area of study.


1.6 Definition of Terms

Accumulation:

This is a process whereby water is gathered gradually in an area without flowing away easily.

Appraisal:

This denotes evaluation of damages caused by flooding to human activities either social or economic terms.

Commuter:

This are people who travels along distance to work every day.

Flooding:

This is seen as the accumulation of excessive quantity of water in an area without flowing away easily.

Occupant:

A person who leaves or works in a particular house, room, building etc.

Transportation:

This involved the movement of people and gods from one place to another.

Leaching:

This involves the removal of the chemical, mineral etc content from the soil.


Chapter Five


Discussion of Findings, Summary, Conclusions and Recommendation.

Research Finding.

From the responses gotten from the respondents, the following findings were made;

  1. Most of the respondents are faced with physical health implications of flood and malaria is the commonest health implication they are faced with.
  2. Most of the people believe that flood occurs as a result of man’s activities in his environment.
  3. Flood cause damages to the environment which could lead to environmental degradation.
  4. We can prevent flood disaster occurrence through;
    • The activities of the state ministry of environment.
    • Through enforcement of environmental laws.
    • Proper environmental monitoring.

Summary.

The project work was carried out to assess the causes and health implications of flood. The research design was the descriptive research design. The universe of study was Three thousand (3000) out of which stratified random sampling technique was adopted to select two hundred (200) as a sampling unit for the study. The instrument for data collection was questionnaire and the data collected were analyzed with chi-square.


Conclusion

This study has explored the conditions to which members of a flood prone community are exposed resulting in vulnerability to the hazards of flooding. Through the results and discussions in the preceding chapters, the study has realized that households and community members have some coping mechanisms to reduce their vulnerability.
Depending on one’s local knowledge of drainage for early warning and monitoring these copping measures are adequate as temporary measures under the immediacy of the problem, they are not ideal as the long term solutions to the problem which is moving the occupants, unless infrastructure measures can be built to cope with the floods. In some instances these temporary copping measures create unexpected challenges.


Public Health Implication of the Study.

As public health officers, we deal with the preventive measures of health related problems we advice people who stay in flood prone communities to try and sanitize their gutters properly so as to enable the channels flow properly, we also advice them to take good care of their environment as flood could lead to accumulation of stagnant water which would breed mosquitoes that can cause malaria. If the various ways of avoiding being vulnerable to flood doesn’t work, the key advice is to relocate to an area that is not prone to flood.


Recommendations.

From the causes and implications of flood disaster occurrence highlighted in the study, the following recommendations were made.

Recommendations to Household and Community Members.

Attitudinal change on indiscriminate dumping of refuse in drainage facilities and flood waters is critical in reducing the impacts of flooding incidents. Community members must be encouraged to build elevated structures (on stilts) to ensure that flood waters do not enter their rooms and to allow free flow of water. Community members should be educated on their contribution in increasing the negative effects of climate change and flooding. The use of radio, television and newspapers will be helpful for community members to understand climate change and the impacts of flooding and the role human activities play in exacerbating the situation. Again, these media could be used to disseminate early warnings to community members.

Communities prone to flooding would need to make good use of education on flooding, make good use of safe measures identified and relocate their valuables before heavy rains starts or rivers overflow their banks, to avoid the destruction of life and property during flood disasters. Preferably, community members should be able to plan ahead of flood incidents to avoid unexpected cost and expenses.

Community Action Plans are critical in ensuring that the problems of communities are systematically addressed. Community Watch committees that protect drainage systems and waterways from unauthorized constructions and dumping, could also play and major contributory role to minimizing flood damage.

Recommendations to Local Government.

Local government should make spatial and land use planning a priority on its development agenda. It can be observed that, most of the flood-prone communities are not well-planned. Houses and structures built in the flood prone communities are haphazard and weak. Further, there are inadequate drainage systems, hence increasing the level of exposure and vulnerability. When local authorities ensure effective implementation of spatial plans, the conflicts that arise from demolition will be minimized.

Promote community involvement in infrastructural planning and spatial and land use planning. Reducing flood risk and vulnerability in flood-prone communities requires a participatory approach. It is imperative that adaptation mechanisms encompass the local community members. A critical lesson for local authorities is that, it is difficult to accomplish flood risk and vulnerability reduction plans with a top-down approach. Community involvement and engagement produces the desired results in reducing flooding. It is important to note that, community members also contribute to the causes of flooding in their communities. Indiscriminate dumping of refuse, building without permit, building on waterways and among others are some of the man-made activities that contribute to flooding. Public awareness and flood reduction campaign, adequate formal and non-formal education, and regular transparent information dissemination are also essential lessons for local government authorities for m community participation.


Limitations.

In the research work, the researcher encountered some short comings of limitation in terms of both mental and physical input which prevented this work from being as perfect as it was intended to be.

Such factors as financial constrain, as it was self sponsored. Time was also a problem during the study. The researcher also found it difficult getting information from some areas in the community because the roads were bad and they were not motor able as a result of flood and some of the inhabitants relocated to some camps that were created for them by the state. In spite of these limitations, the results can still be a true representation of the facts.


The Causes And Effect Of Flooding In Egor Local Government Area Of Edo State


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