Evaluation Of The Causes Of School Dropout Among Male Students In Public Secondary Schools

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Evaluation Of The Causes Of School Dropout Among Male Students In Public Secondary Schools


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

According to Merriam Webster English Dictionary, a school dropout is an individual who stops going to school or who abandons school without completion of the school years due to not believing in its rules, customs or values. The most basic definition of a school dropout is an untimely departure from school. These students who drop out of school early are unable to obtain a graduate degree.

The importance of understanding the implications of school dropout can not be overemphasized as it poses a critical problem for the educational sector in the world at large. This pattern of secondary school dropouts is most prominent in schools with underdeveloped facilities and infrastructure. According to Ajaja (2012), the nation is experiencing a high level of instability as a result of illegal activity. According to surveys conducted by both print and electronic media, over 85% of illegal acts perpetrated in Nigeria are carried out by young people who have dropped out of school. This development has piqued the interest of all well-intentioned Nigerians. This suggests that our educational system is in trouble, and that it requires immediate refocusing and restructuring in order to achieve national objectives. The reasons why students drop out of school can be divided into four groups on a global scale as cited by Ajaja (2012). These include school-related issues, job-related issues, family-related issues, and community-related issues. Frendenberg and Ruglls (2007) listed twenty-four variables under the family cluster, three under the group cluster, and twelve under the school cluster in their study. Low family socioeconomic status, racial or ethnic groups, male, special education status, low family support for education, low parental education, residential mobility, low social conformity, low approval of adult authority, high degree of social alienation, destructive behavior activity, being kept barred are some of the variables listed under the family cluster being held back in school, poor academic achievement, early academic problems, dislike of school, feelings of “not fitting in” and “not belonging,” perceptions of unfair or harsh discipline, feeling unsafe in school, not engaged in school, being suspended or expelled, conflicts with work and school, having to work and school, having to work to support family, substance use and pregnancy. The following characteristics were identified in the population cluster: living in a low-income neighborhood, having peers with low educational expectations, and having dropout friends or siblings. These variables were identified under the education-related cluster: low socioeconomic status of school students population, high level of racial or ethnic segregation of students, high proportion of students of color in high school, high proportion of students enrolled in special education, central city location, large school district, school safety and disciplinary policies, high-stakes testing, high student-to-teacher ratio, academic tracking, discrepancy between the racial or ethnic composition of a class and the racial or ethnic composition of a class, large school district, school safety and disciplinary policies, high While the job-related cluster includes students who were unable to work and attend school at the same time, others who were forced to work in order to survive, and others who find work. It is necessary to emphasize that the variables in and cluster aren’t all definitive. According to Ajaja (2012), the world has a high incidence of unemployment as a result of illegal activity, and the reasons for students dropping out of school vary from society to society and country to country. According to reports in the print and electronic media, youths who have dropped out of school was responsible for over 85% of illegal activities in Nigeria. This growth has piqued the interest of all well-intentioned Nigerians. This suggests that our school system is in turmoil and needs immediate attention to refocus and restructure it for the future.

Male students who drop out of public secondary schools “experience higher levels of unemployment and receive lower earnings than high school graduates, are more likely to have health problems, engage in criminal activities and become dependent on welfare and other government programs than graduates.” (Rumberger, 1985)


1.2 Statement Of Research Problem

The concept of school dropout has been an alarming issue facing most students in under-developed and developing countries of the world. Nigeria, for instance, has a record high rate of students who drop out of school due to several factors, such as poverty, loss of parents, lack of funds, etc. This issue is very rampant among male students in rural areas, especially in public schools.

Public secondary schools experience dropout levels in males and it has for some time posed a critical challenge to not just their individual lives but also to society at large as these male students drop out and indulge in other unscrupulous or dubious activities in search of making a living or surviving. Certain factors both internal and external, such as the poor provision of basic necessities, poor infrastructure and so on, influence these individuals to make such a decision which would definitely have an effect on them and society.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the causes of school dropout among male students in public secondary schools.

This research focuses on:

  1. To examine the cause of school dropout among male students in secondary schools.
  2. To examine the effect of male students dropping out of school.
  3. To propose potential solutions to the causes of male student dropout.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions guide this study:

  1. What is the cause of school dropout among male students in secondary schools?
  2. What is the effect of male students dropping out of secondary schools?
  3. What are the possible solutions that can prevent male students dropping out of school?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

The findings of this study will help increase awareness of the challenge of male students’ dropouts in public secondary schools and the various causes. This study will help the government come to the realization of the issue at hand and seek possible solutions to bring an end to the dropout of male students. The study will also help parents understand the need to pay proper attention to their wards in order to understand how they are being treated in their schools. The study will also be helpful in the academic world as it will be an addition to other written works and also an avenue for the researchers to broaden the scope of this study.


1.6 Scope Of The Study

This study encapsulates public secondary school dropouts among male students. The study will take place at a randomly chosen public secondary school in Lagos state, Ojodu berger.


1.7 Limitations Of The Study

The limitations faced by this study were mainly time and funds. The researcher didn’t have enough time and funds to cover a larger number of secondary schools in Lagos state.


1.8 Operational Definition Of Terms

1. School:

An environment or structure put in place for individuals to gather and harness knowledge.

2. School Dropout:

In this study, a school dropout is an individual who withdraws from school untimely.

3. Students:

In this study, students are individuals or persons who attend schools.


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Evaluation Of The Causes Of School Dropout Among Male Students In Public Secondary Schools

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