Parent Socioeconomic Status On In-School Adolescents’ Attitudes Towards Schooling In Ogbomoso South LGA
Background to the Study
Parents socio-economic background has a lot of roles to play in students’ achievements as well as their attitude towards schooling. It is key to a students’ life and outside of school, is the most important influence on student learning. Socio-economic status of parents do not only affect the academic performance, but also makes it possible for children from low background to compete with their counterparts from high socio-economic background under the same academic environment (Hill, Castelino, Lansford, Nowlin, Dodge, Bates & Pettit, 2004).
Socio-economic status is the social standing of an individual in society with respect to his or her level of education, income, type of occupation and general quality of life. It also includes individuals’ access to goods and services in the market place (Ornstein & Levine, 2006).Kaufman, Cooper and McGee (2007) defined socioeconomic status as an access to such resources that enables individuals and/or groups to thrive in the social world.
Socio-economic status can be defined as a person’s overall social position to which attainments in both the social and economic domain contribute (Loes, 2014). When used in studies of children’s school achievement, it refers to the SES of the parents or family. Socio-economic status is determined by an individual’s achievement in: education; employment and occupational status; and income and wealth. Several comprehensive reviews of the relationship between SES and educational outcomes exist (Bornstein & Bradley, 2003; Makokha & Onditi, 2018).
Qakes & Rasi (2003) assert that it is a fact that in families where the parents are privileged educationally, socially and economically, they promote a higher level of achievement in their offspring. Sirin (2005), also give assert that the parents give a higher level of psychological support for their children through enriched atmosphere that promotes and encourages the development of skills required for success at school. According to Jeynes (2002), the socio-economic status of a child is usually determined by parental occupation status, income level and the environment in which the child is brought up.
According to Peters and Mullis (2007), parents living in urban informal settlements find it hard to provide for their children adequately. Lack of good social amenities and the presence of social evils affect the children attitude in a negative way towards schooling.
Children in slums across sub-Saharan Africa are less likely to attend school than non-slum children (Buckland, 2000). In Nigeria, children in slums are 35% less likely to attend than non-slum residents (Chen, 2009).The situation of slums in Kenya is similar to that of slums around the world, such as India and Bangladesh.According to Cameron (2010), there were areas in Bangladesh which lack access to government schools andwhich are too poor for even the lowest cost private education, meaning that they attend school infrequently, repeatyears of schooling and have poor achievement. Ramey & Ramey (2004), observe that, in third world countries,families with lower socio- economic status often lack the financial, social and educational support thatcharacterizes high socio-economic status families. Lower socio-economic status parents have inadequate orlimited access to community resources that promote and support children’s development and school performance.According to Eamon (2005), at secondary school level, students hailing from low socio-economicstatus are trained to respect authority and obey orders that employers like in manual labourers.
Studies around Africa by different scholars such as, (Eamon, 2005; Jeynes, 2002), haveindicated that there is a significant difference between low and high socioeconomic status. Low socio-economicstatus are often portrayed as disadvantaged in terms of having lower income and lower levels of education andtherefore being associated with disadvantaged school performance and outcome. There is also a limited access tosecondary education for the youth in Kenya as transition rate is just about 50% with a large majority of theexcluded likely to be those living in the slums. The slum sites are characterized by a large population of pupils,yet they are served by very few public schools. Many of the slum residing youth are excluded from formaltraining prospects offered in Kenya because entry to such training often requires secondary completion asascertain (Onsomu, 2006). These components of quality education are rarelyaddressed holistically in urban informal settlements setting. According to Maurin(2002), 74% of familiesliving in the relatively low-income formal settlements have their children enrolled in public schools compared to52% of families living in the informal settlements.
An attitude is “a relatively enduring organization of beliefs, feelings, and behavioural tendencies towards socially significant objects, groups, events or symbols” (Hogg & Vaughan, 2005). Attitudes structure can be described in terms of three components: affective component (involves a person’s feelings / emotions about an attitude object), behavioural (or cognitive) component (the way the attitudewe have influences how we act or behave) and cognitive component (involves a person’s belief/knowledge about an attitude object) (Hogg & Vaughan, 2005).
Attitudes towards schooling and learning are associated with academic achievement. Students with poor academic performance have a more negative attitude towards learning and believe that school and learning will not help them being successful in the future (Candeias, Rebelo& Oliveira, 2010). Marks (2008) conducted a wide-ranging research, where he studied attitudes of students, teachers, parents and school administration towards the school environment, changes in attitudes over 10 years and the impact of attitudes on the sense of success. The vast majority of respondents agreed that school should provide a stimulating environment, where students feel comfortable and safe, are satisfied with their teachers and derive joy and pleasure from learning. School environment should, therefore, facilitate academic achievement. When examining the quality of school environment students expressed a positive attitude, felt successful as students and agreed that school will prepare them for the future. A study on attitudes over time indicates a moderate decline of attitudes towards school and teachers. This decline is presumably affected by decreased satisfaction young people feel towards institutions in general, media communications about issues in the educational system, different profiles of teachers and their teaching techniques. The main factors influencing attitudes of students towards school include the subjects learnt, policy and requirements of an individual school.
Academic achievement of a student is the ability of the student to study and remember facts and being able to communicate his knowledge orally or in written form even under examination conditions. Secondary education plays a crucial role in laying the foundation for the further education of students. If a good foundation is laid at the secondary school level, students can better cope with the challenges of life and profession with great ease (Kpolovie, Joe & Okoto, 2014). Academic success is one of the most widely used constructs in educational research and assessment and it’s often wrongly confused with the term academic achievement. Based on the analysis and findings of York, Gibson & Rankin (2015), the academic success is inclusive of academic achievement, attainment of learning objectives, acquisition of desired skills and competencies, satisfaction, persistence, and career success. Their results also indicate that grades and GPA are the most commonly used measure of academic success, but it is incorrect. Grades and GPA represents academic achievement not the academic success.
According to Sejčová (2006) an important factor contributing to good results of students in individual subjects is their attitude towards them. Sejčová (2006) indicated that an attitude towards a subject reflects a measure of popularity that, in turn, reflects a tendency to undertake actions required by the subject and the satisfaction gained from these actions. Kubiatko (2013) argues that if attitudes towards a subject and school are positive, also the achievement of students gets better. The achievement of a student could be defined as individual progress, improvement in terms of acquired knowledge, skills and competences. Many teachers, as is apparent from the study of Holúbková & Glasová (2011) associate academic achievement with a positive attitude of a student towards school that may not be necessarily reflected in excellent achievements, although it will be reflected in producing the best individual performance in relation to a student’s dispositions. Academic achievement should be also analysed in a relation to a student’s attitude towards learning and school, as it ensures internal motivation for providing better performance.
The relation between attitude toward school and socioeconomic level, the results of previous studies had shown that boys with higher levels appear to be more satisfied with school. Pupils from lower socioeconomic status who have less access to school resources and computers express more negative attitudes toward school. The socio-economic level also regards to the way in which families take part in their children academic life. In this aspect, previous studies show that family contexts which are less exciting and involved in their children’s education are manifested in less positive attitudes toward school, less resilience levels and have higher probability of dropping out of school, as soon as they feel less support from their family and community, and tend to believe that having studies and completing school are not important to have a job or having a career. (Abreu, Veiga, Ferreira &Antunes, 2006; Rumberger, 2001)
Regarding to the relation between attitudes toward school and academic achievement, we are able to say that previous school performance experienced by pupils have influence in the attitudes they show toward school, learning and commitment to school. The research developed until now reveal that pupils with lower performance and higher rate of school failure have more negative attitudes. But when schools are able to provide interesting activities for their pupils and the way those activities are engaged, and even the participation of pupils and their families in school decisions, it will have influence on how pupils feel at school and how they react to school life. That is, schools that are more engaging arouse more positive attitudes (Abreu, et al, 2006).
People who perceive more support from adults who live with them at school and from colleagues have more positive attitudes towards schooling and feel more satisfaction with school (Akey, 2006). For example, Linnehan (2001) found differences between racial groups and parental educational background in pupils’ beliefs and attitudes toward schooling. In the same study, he found that parental educational level was associated with more favourable attitudes toward college (except for the Asian group). Moreover, this study stressed the relationship between the college-related attitudes and beliefs with pupils’ performance, even among urban pupils.However, this study is intends to investigate parent socioeconomic status on in-school adolescents’ attitudes towards schooling in Ogbomoso South LGA.
Statement of the Problems
The role of parental involvement in school children’s education cannot be over-emphasized. Parents play a critical role in modeling their children’s ensuring children get the best education they could afford. However, Parent socioeconomic status and host of other factors relating to home environment of students, such as educational background of parents, health status of students, parental occupation and family size could have effects on children academic achievement and their attitude towards schooling (Adewale, 2002).
Several researchers had conducted studies on parent socioeconomic and in-school adolescents towards school. For instance, Hill, Castelino, Lansford, Nowlin, Dodge, Bates and Pettit (2004) conducted a study on parents academic involvement as related to school behaviour, achievement and aspirations: demographic variations across adolescence. It was argued that socio–economic status of parents do not only affect the academic performance, but also makes it possible for children from low background to compete well their counterparts from high socio economic background under the same academic environment. In the same vein, Guerin, Reinberg, Testu, Boulenguiez, Mechkouri & Touitou(2001) examined the role of parental socioeconomic status on school going children and posited that parental socioeconomic status could affect school children as to bring about flexibility to adjustment to the different school schedules
In a previous local finding in Nigeria, Oni (2007) investigated socioeconomic status as predictor of deviant behaviours among Nigeria secondary school students and Omoegun (2007) investigated effect of parental socio – economic status on parental care and social adjustment in the UBE programme in Lagos state. They averred that there is significant difference between the rates of deviant behaviour among students from high and low socio–economic statuses. Ogunshola and Adewale (2012) conducted a study on the effects of parental socio-economic status on academic performance of students in selected schools in EduLga of Kwarastate Nigeria. It was found that parental socio-economic statuses and parental educational background did not have significance effect on the academic performance of the students. However, the parental educational qualification and health statuses of the students were identified tom have statistical significant effect o the academic performance of the students.
To the best of researcher knowledge, none of the previous researchers had worked on the parent socioeconomic status on in-school adolescents’ attitudes towards schooling in Ogbomoso South LGA. Therefore, this present researcher intends to fill the gap left by the previous researchers to investigate the parent socioeconomic status on in-school adolescents’ attitudes towards schooling in Ogbomoso South LGA.
The under listed research questions were raised to guide the conduct of this study:
- What arethe influence of parent socioeconomic status on in-school adolescents’ attitudes towards schooling in Ogbomoso South LGA?
- Is there any difference in the influence of parent socioeconomic status on in-school adolescents’ attitudes towards schooling in Ogbomoso South LGA based on gender?
- Is there any difference in the influence of parent socioeconomic status on in-school adolescents’ attitudes towards schooling in Ogbomoso South LGA based on age?
- Is there any difference in the influence of parent socioeconomic status on in-school adolescents’ attitudes towards schooling in Ogbomoso South LGA based on parent education?
- Is there any difference in the influence of parent socioeconomic status on in-school adolescents’ attitudes towards schooling in Ogbomoso South LGA based on parent income?
- Is there any difference in the influence of parent socioeconomic status on in-school adolescents’ attitudes towards schooling in Ogbomoso South LGA based on parent occupation?
The following null research hypotheses were formulated and tested in the study:
- There is no significant difference in the influence of parent socioeconomic status on in-school adolescents’ attitudes towards schooling in Ogbomoso South LGA based on gender.
- There is no significant difference in the influence of parent socioeconomic status on in-school adolescents’ attitudes towards schooling in Ogbomoso South LGA based on age.
- There is no significant difference in the influence of parent socioeconomic status on in-school adolescents’ attitudes towards schooling in Ogbomoso South LGA based on parent education.
- There is no significant difference in the influence of parent socioeconomic status on in-school adolescents’ attitudes towards schooling in Ogbomoso South LGA based on parent income?
- There is no significant difference in the influence of parent socioeconomic status on in-school adolescents’ attitudes towards schooling in Ogbomoso South LGA based on parent occupation?
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this study is to investigate the parent socioeconomic status on in-school adolescents’ attitudes towards schooling in Ogbomoso South LGA. Specifically, the study seek to find out if moderating variables of gender, age, parent education, parent incomeand parent occupation will influence the expression of in-school adolescents in Ogbomoso South LGA on the parent socioeconomic status on in-school adolescents’ attitudes towards schooling.
Significance of the Study
The finding of this study would be of immense benefit to head teachers, head teachers, policy makers, parents, adolescents and future researchers.
The study will inform head teachers on ways to enhance parents’ participation as regards children’s learning irrespective of their socioeconomic status and also assist head teachers and teachers in strengthening in-schooling adolescents’ positive attitude towards schooling.
The findings of this study may also be useful to education policy makers. Its recommendations may lead to formulation of policies that support students with from parents with low socioeconomic status, decision- making in school and communication with the school teachers. It may also influence policies related to enhancing socio-economic levels of parents such as empowering families to have access to credit facilities. In addition, findings of this study may inform curriculum developers on the need to come up with a curriculum on community education on income generating strategies in order toraise the socio-economic levels of parents.
The study would be of benefit to parents to know the influence of socioeconomic status on students’ attitude towards schooling as well as academic achievements. The study would assist in-school adolescents on how to develop positive attitude towards schooling. Lastly, the study may serve as future reference, be a source of aspiration to new researchers who may be interested in studying parent socioeconomic status on in-school adolescents’ attitudes towards schooling and related topics.
Operational Definitions of Terms
For the purpose of clarity and understanding terminologies used in this study, the following terms are operationally defined as used in the study.
Refers to feelings, be it positive or negative, for doing something
Attitude toward Schooling:
Refers disposition of student about receiving education of interest, motivation and value
This refers to students in secondary school
In-school adolescents’ father or mother.
Refers to education received by in-school adolescents
Refers to social and economic factors of parents of in-school adolescents.
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Frequently Asked Questions
How does socioeconomic status affect adolescence and health?
The association between low income, on one hand, and reduced access to health care and worse health, on the other, represents just one manifestation of the effect of socioeconomic status on the life chances of adolescents. The main settings that influence the way children and adolescents grow up include families, neighborhoods, and schools.
What are the effects of poverty on adolescence?
Socioeconomic Status and the Fates of Adolescents. Conversely, high-poverty neighborhoods are more likely to be physically deteriorated and to have more crime and street violence, greater availability of illegal drugs, and more negative peer influences and adult role models ( McLoyd 1998; National Research Council 1995 ).
How does family income affect the quality of adolescent settings?
The quality of these settings, and whether they are supportive and nurturing or dangerous and destructive, has a profound influence on adolescents’ chances for leading successful adult lives. Family income is perhaps the single most important factor in determining the quality of these settings (National Research Council 1995).
How does the structure of families affect the support of adolescents?
Recent changes in the structure of families, and the consequences for the family incomes of children and adolescents, have eroded the support that many adolescents receive as they grow up.