A Study Of Factors That Enhance Students-Teachers Effectiveness In Secondary Schools In Oredo Local Government Area

Project and Seminar Material for Education

A Study Of Factors That Enhance Students-Teachers Effectiveness In Secondary Schools In Oredo Local Government Area


Abstract


This study was carried out to investigate the factors that enhance students-teachers effectiveness in secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo state. The descriptive survey research design was adopted in carrying out the study. The instrument for data collection was a researchers’ made rating scale with reliability coefficient of 0.85 determined using Cronbach’s alpha formula. Data generated from the study was analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer research questions while the hypothesis was analyzed using t-test statistical tool tested at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the study revealed that, the teaching skills possessed by teachers that enhance their effectiveness include; set induction skills, closure skills, use of examples and illustration skills and questioning skills. Also, the result indicated that the learning skills that enhance students’ effectiveness were time management, note-taking, reading effectively, study skills, and writing tests. This shows that skills and competences of teachers has influence on effective curriculum implementation as well as the teaching and learning process. Based on the result of the study it was recommended that secondary school teachers should be trained and retrained periodically on teaching skills that will enhance their effectiveness.

 


Table of Content


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisation of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Overview of Teaching and Learning Skills in Secondary School Education
  • 2.2.1 Assessment
  • 2.2.2 Instruction
  • 2.3 Instructional Competencies of Teachers for Effective Implementation of Curriculum
  • 2.4 Teachers Content / Subject Matter Knowledge
  • 2.5 Qualification Competencies of Social Studies Teachers
  • 2.6 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.6.1 The Competency Based Teacher Theory by Mcdonald (1974)
  • 2.6.2 Social Learning Theory
  • 2.6.3 Development of Trait and Factor Theories

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population
  • 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
  • 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.5 Validity of the Instrument
  • 3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
  • 3.7 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.8 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Result
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Education is the priority sector for every well-meaning society. It is a process by which individuals acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes, which enable them to develop their faculties in full. Quality education enables individuals to contribute to the development of the quality of their lives, communities and the nation as a whole. This is why in Nigerian, education is regarded as an instrument “per excellence” for effecting national development (Federal Republic of Nigeria, FRN, 2004). Danmole (2011) noted that education has remained an instrument of change and national development. Education is therefore a social process and medium for the acquisition of relevant knowledge, skills and attitudes for survival in a challenging and changing world.

Educational system in Nigeria has undergone different changes of which Universal Basic Education is one. The Universal Basic Education programme has been initiated into the Nigerian education system so as to provide functional and effective education for its citizenry and also as a way of eradicating illiteracy, ignorance and poverty among Nigerians (Yusuf &Ajere, 2009). Universal Basic Education Programme is an educational reform programme of the Federal Government of Nigeria introduced to serve as a catalyst for achieving free, compulsory and universal 9-year education for every Nigerian child of school age (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2012; Danmole, 2012). As a result, the existing curricula for primary and junior secondary schools were reviewed, restructured and re-aligned to fit into a 9-year Basic Education Programme (Obioma, 2007). The Primary Science for 6 years primary education was restructured into Basic Science and Technology (BST) for lower basic level primary1-3 and middle basic level (primary 4-6) and integrated science to Basic Science (BS) for upper basic level (JSS 1-3) (Adeniyi, 2007 &Danmole, 2011).

Teachers are saddled with the responsibility of impacting knowledge to learners at every level of education. Ighohiro (2012) stated that, teachers are those who mold student character, personality and show students the right direction to success. A functional education is hinged on a well-trained and retrained teacher in the classroom. Rahayu (2017) stated that the main factor that decides the quality of education is the teacher so that the quality of teachers should be in the main focus to enhance the quality of education in our country. Every system is adjudged by the value of its products and services and in the case of education, the core product is well tutored learner who possesses specific teaching skills and knowledge with refined behavior that enable him function effectively in the society (Onye & Ajuzie, 2018).

It is the teacher who should direct, organize and encourage the students to become agents of change in any society. Ryan and Cooper cited in Obidike (2017) noted that a teacher must demonstrate a repertoire of teaching skills that are believed to facilitate students learning and must display attitude that foster learning and genuine human relationship. According to Ullah, Farooq and Memon (2008) preparation of teachers for effective teaching needs pedagogical and interpersonal skills. This implies that, a pedagogical skill possessed by a teacher determines his level of effectiveness. Teachers can play their role effectively only when they are well trained (Sharma, 2000). Sanjaya (2009) stated that teachers’ basic teaching skills are needed in order to make teachers be able to do their role in managing learning process so that learning process can run smoothly and efficiently. Basic teaching skills are an absolute requirement for teacher to be able to implement various lesson strategies (Rahayu, 2017). Teachers are in charge of choosing and deciding materials, strategies, methods, media, and instruments for evaluation in performing learning process to achieve education result which has high quality and has been accepted by teachers’ ethic code (Rahayu, 2017)

Teaching skills originated from Allen and his group in the 1960’s in Stanford University, United States of America (Ike, 2003; Ifegbo, 2012; Iwu, Ajuzie&Nzeakor, 2013,2018) respectively. These scholars according to the above authors observed that it was the push to look out for those things that would contribute to effective teaching and learning and to replace the traditional methods of exposing teachers to classroom teaching that led to isolation of these teacher behaviours. At Stanford University then, in an attempt to isolate the appropriate teacher behaviour, teachers were asked to teach. In the process of teaching, other teachers were observing them. In this way, teacher behaviours or teaching skills were identified and isolated. These skills were then accepted as appropriate teaching skills a professional teacher should acquire for teaching effectiveness and efficiency. However, other behaviours that were genetically oriented and good for entertainment were not selected for classroom instruction. It was these identified and isolated teacher behaviors that were observed and practiced that gave teaching a professional background.

According to Kyriacou (2007), teaching skills are measured and coherent activity performed by teachers in order to make students study. It is also regarded as the strategies that teachers employ which facilitate students’ learning and which are acknowledged by those competent as being teaching skills. Okoye and Aneto (2010), Iwu, Ajuzie & Nzeakor (2013) citing Achuonye (2002), Umoren and Ogong (2007), stated that pedagogical skills or teaching skills are those positive behaviors of a teacher which promote the efficiency and effectiveness of classroom instruction these includes;

Set induction:

This is a skill used to arouse the interest of learners, create an atmosphere of curiosity and motivation in any learning environment. This skill energizes, direct and sustain the learner’s interest for the period of lesson delivery.

Questioning:

This is an activity that arouses the curiosity and mental activity of a learner. A teacher should master this skill in such a way that he can use it at will in the classroom instruction. It is highly recommended to teachers ever since Socrates first used it to draw out ideas from learning. Questioning skills are categorized into higher order cognitive questioning, lower order cognitive questioning, probing questions and divergent questions.

Use of Examples and Illustration:

It is a skill that helps the teacher to use concrete and verbal references in the class in order to positively influence the learners. It helps the memory to store learning and minimize forgetting.

Planned Repetition:

This skill is employed to help the learner assimilate what is being taught as the teacher repeats himself/herself in a more planned manner during instructional delivery.

Stimulus Variation:

This skill strikes the learning senses of the learners such as the eyes, ears, mouth, smell and tactile.

Non-Verbal Communication:

The teacher adopts this skill by using signals via body movements in order to attract the attention of the learners in the class.

Reinforcement:

It is a deliberate attempt by the teacher to change the behaviour of the learner. This action of the teacher can be positive or negative reinforcement. Reinforcement is positive when the action of the teacher increases the probability of the response occurring again and again. Such actions of the teacher include “very good” “well done” and such actions that will help the learner to perform better. Negative reinforcement is the teacher’s actions for correction of an unwanted behavior. This is done by giving punishment, withholding rewards or application of corrective feedback.

Closure:

It is the skill that often marks the end of a lesson. However, it may be used anywhere along the lesson for the purpose of rounding up any unit of instruction (Iwu, 2001; Ike, 2003; Achuonye, 2002; Ifegbo, 2012; Iwu, Ajuzie & Nzeakor, 2013, Okoye and Aneto 2010).

Since teaching is an individual art, it is very difficult to find two or more teachers who teach in an identical way. The job involves the teacher’s knowledge of the subject and subject matter he teaches, the skills he uses and his personality (Ajuzie & Chukwu, 2016). Therefore, an efficient teacher has to try out several teaching skills in different situations so as to realize his talent and potentials. The merits of each of these teaching skills in bringing out a would-be quality teacher in the classroom cannot be over emphasized.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Teachers’ effectiveness may tell a lot about how children develop in Basic Science and Technology. This is because no matter how laudable a curriculum is planned, its success will depend mainly on the characteristics of the teacher as they determine what happens during teaching and learning (Igbokwe, 2009). Kolawole (2011) asserted that for children to show interest or not, like or dislike any subject, it depends on the teachers and how effective the teachers are. Kolawole further explained that the implementation of any curriculum depends on the quality of teachers and their effectiveness in the teaching and learning process.

Teachers as a factor are an issue that affects pupils or students’ effective learning which has however received a lot of attention by researchers, but with mixed findings. Studies have revealed that teachers’ variables such as years of teaching experience, level of academic attainment or academic qualification, teachers-students ratio, teachers attitude, teachers’ job satisfaction, motivation and remuneration affect learning outcome (Adesoji & Olatunbosun, 2008; Ewetan, 2010; Akinsola, 2010; Odiri, 2011; Akpo, 2012; Daso, 2013;). In addition, Tella (2008) also reported that teachers’ educational qualification is another variable that is seen to affect learning outcomes. Nonetheless, other studies found that these teachers’ variables have no significant influence on learning outcomes (Ayodele & Ige, 2012; Yara & Surumo, 2012). This contradiction in the findings therefore necessitates other research efforts in other to provide enough empirical evidence for drawing reasonable conclusion about these variables. For instance, among the variables, teachers’ qualification has been adduced to have serious influenced in the teaching and learning process.

The most efficient process to national development globally is in the deliberate improvement of its population. This is to improve its human capital capacity development. Thus, the most valuable of all capital is the investment in human beings whose process renders education and training very critical. It is germane to say that there is need to train and retrain the post basic teachers in the Imo State of Nigeria with a view to actualizing vision 20:2020. The retraining of the teachers is very important because they impact knowledge to the students who in turn apply their acquired knowledge in the development of the nation. This has become pertinent as observations and results of students performance in public examinations has indicated that post basic students are not properly taught. This is suspected to have resulted from the inefficient application of teaching skills by the teachers at the secondary school level.This study was carried out to investigate the factors that enhance students-teachers effectiveness in secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo state.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to investigate the factors that enhance students-teachers effectiveness in secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo state. Specifically, the objectives of the study include to;

  1. To determine whether teaching skills enhance students-teachers effectiveness in secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area
  2. To ascertain whether learning skills enhance students-teachers effectiveness in secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area
  3. To suggest appropriate solutions to the problems affecting students-teachers effectiveness in secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area

1.4 Research Question

The following research questions are formulated to guide this research:

  1. Do teaching skills enhance students-teachers effectiveness in secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area?
  2. Do learning skills enhance students-teachers effectiveness in secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area?
  3. What are the appropriate solutions to the problems affecting students-teachers effectiveness in secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • HO1 Teaching skills enhance students-teachers effectiveness in secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo state
  • HO2 Learning skills enhance students-teachers effectiveness in secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo state

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study has both theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically, the findings of this study will add credence to McDonald’s competency based teacher theory and the Stufflebeam’s Context Input Process Product Model upon which the study is anchored. The theory holds that teachers’ possession of knowledge, skills, and attitudes enables them to recognize and solve complex problems in their domain of study or future work, which could mean their skills for effectiveness in teaching.

This research is of significance to the domain secondary education and as well throw more light on appropriate methodology and choice of instructional materials, skills and techniques for both teaching and learning. These aims and objectives however cannot be achieved if there are no sufficient and effective means of running these subjects into our Nigerian institution of learning.

The finding of the study would help to expose the problems and betters ways of teaching and learning in secondary education, the introduction of specific subject in Nigerian school curriculum is not without aims and objectives. The rationale behind this introduction is to meet the state and nation man power needs.


1.7 Scope of Study

This study was carried out on the factors that enhance students-teachers effectiveness in secondary schools. The study covered selected secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo state.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of this study, the researcher encountered some limitations. There was unwillingness of respondents to fill the questionnaires. Some of the copies questionnaires were also reported missing and it was severally replaced and this affected the researcher negatively finance wise. Also, the researcher faced time constraints and had to combine the research with other academic activities and coursework. Lastly, the researcher made use of selected secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Areasince all the secondary schools in Edo state could not be exhausted.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Teacher Effectiveness:

Generally, effective teachers plan carefully, use appropriate materials, communicate goals to students, maintain a brisk pace, assess student work regularly, and use a variety of teaching strategies.

Student Effectiveness:

Effective students have several key characteristics in common, and anyone can become a more effective student by adopting the habits these students share. Effective students take responsibility, manage their time, use their strengths, address their weaknesses and use the resources available to them.

Teaching Skills:

Include skills in communication, listening, collaboration, adaptability, empathy and patience which are some qualities of a good teacher that enhances their teaching process.

Learning Skills:

Is a term that describes the tasks involved in learning, including time management, note-taking, reading effectively, study skills, and writing tests.

Secondary School:

Describes an institution that provides secondary education and also usually includes the building where this takes place.

Student:

A person formally engaged in learning, especially one enrolled in a school or college.

Teacher:

A person who teaches, especially in a school.


1.10 Organisation of the Study

This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one included the background of the study, research problem, research objectives and questions as well as limitation of the study. Chapter two contains the literature review. Chapter three includes the methodology and study area. Chapter Four contains the results and discussion of key findings of the study. Chapter Five finally looks at the summary, conclusions, and recommendations based on the findings.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that enhance students-teachers effectiveness in secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo state. A descriptive survey was employed for the study. A questionnaire was used to gather data from the respondents which were students and teachers from the selected secondary schools in Oredo LGA. The result of the study revealed that senior secondary school teachers possess the following teaching skills, set induction, closure, use of examples and illustrations and questioning skills. The skills were noted to have response mean greater than the criterion mean and were accepted as skills possessed by the teachers. Also, the result indicated that the learning skills needed were time management, note-taking, reading effectively, study skills, and writing tests. However, the item 5 was rejected while items 1 to 4 were accepted. This means that the respondents didn’t consider test writing a learning skill. However, the result gave a grand mean of 2.66 which is within the acceptance range.


5.2 Conclusion

The result of the study revealed that teaching skills possessed by senior secondary school teachers which enhances their effectiveness includes, set induction, closure, use of examples and illustrations and questioning skills. Also, the result indicated that the learning skills needed were time management, note-taking, reading effectively, study skills, and writing tests. This shows that skills and competences of teachers and students influence their effectiveness and also enhance curriculum implementation as well as the teaching and learning process. Also, it has influence on well handling and use of the curriculum which comes also as a result of good teaching and ability to understand and be guided by the curriculum in the classroom. Students’ achievement would increase when they are taught by a qualified teacher.


5.3 Recommendation

Based on the findings of the study, the researcher hereby makes the following recommendations:

  1. Teachers at secondary school level should arm themselves with teaching skills as to enhance effective teaching.
  2. Only qualified and well trained teachers should be employed to teach at the secondary schools as to enable them apply the appropriate teaching skills in the classroom.
  3. Seminars, workshops and symposia should always be organized by the Government NGOs and School Managers to train and retrain teachers on teaching skills.

Get Complete Project Material

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: A Study Of Factors That Enhance Students-Teachers Effectiveness In Secondary Schools In Oredo Local Government Area

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content


Frequently Asked Questions


How do social factors influence teaching and learning in schools?

They further argued that while some researches in the US have found that social variables continue to influence teaching and learning even after controlling for different school types, the school context tends to affect the strength of the relationship between social factors and effective teaching and learning.

Are teachers different in their strategies of teaching effectiveness?

In case of gender and locality of the schools, it was found that teachers are not different in their strategies of teaching aspect and social aspect of teaching effectiveness.

What factors affect the performance of teachers?

Teacher performance was affected mostly by management factors, followed by working environment and wages. 

What influences teachers’ classroom management effectiveness?

The results of the study showed that age, educational qualification, and years of teaching experience had significant influence on teachers’ classroom management effectiveness. 

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.