Attitude And Perception Of Nursing Mothers Towards Exclusive Breastfeeding In Kagarko Local Government Area Of Kaduna State

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Attitude And Perception Of Nursing Mothers Towards Exclusive Breastfeeding In Kagarko Local Government Area Of Kaduna State


The purpose of the study was to investigate the attitude and perception of nursing mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding In Kagarko Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The research design was descriptive survey. The sample size was three hundred (300) mothers.

The instrument for data collection was a validated questionnaire with reliability coefficient of 0.80. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics. Hypothesis was tested using a Chi-square test analysis, major findings showed that majority of the respondents had high knowledge 178 (59.3%). The overall practice was highly adequate with grand mean of 3.03.

There was a significant association between level of knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding with minimum expected count of 14.08 with 3 degrees of freedom. Based on the findings it was recommended that intensive awareness creation on benefits of exclusive breast feeding should be carried out for mothers during ante natal period.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Hypothesis of the study
  • 1.6 Significance of the study
  • 1.7 Scope of the study
  • 1.8 Operational definition of terms
  • 1.9 Organization of Study

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 The historical context of breastfeeding
  • 2.2 Exclusive breastfeeding trends in the developing world
  • 2.3 Health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding
  • 2.4 Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding
  • 2.5 Influences on breastfeeding
  • 2.6 The Knowledge of Exclusive Breastfeeding
  • 2.7 The Practice of Exclusive Breastfeeding
  • 2.8 Theoretical frame work

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Research Population
  • 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
  • 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.5 Validity of Instrument
  • 3.6 Reliability of Instrument
  • 3.7 Ethical Consideration
  • 3.8 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four:

Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion of findings

Chapter Five:

Conclusion And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • 5.3 Implication for Nursing Practice
  • 5.4 Suggestion for further studies
  • References
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the study

The Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS, 2008) report showed a 13% exclusive breastfeeding rate which is a decline from 17% indicated in 2003 report. The 2008 report also revealed that 34% of the infants aged 0-5 months were given plain water in addition to breast milk, while 10% were given non-milk liquids and juice and 6% were given milk other than breast milk. Furthermore, only 32% of children less than 24 months of age were still on breast milk. Considering the percentage of mothers practicing breast feeding, it should not be surprising that Nigeria is still saddled with high incidence of malnutrition and its associated infant mortality.

Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is the application of breast milk alone in the feeding of a baby for at least four months and if possible six months of life, without the addition of water, food or drinks. The baby however receives vitamins, minerals and medicines in the form of drops and syrup as need arises (WHO,1981). The World Health Organization WHO (2001) received the optional duration of EBF to six months of life. The second type of breastfeeding, predominant breastfeeding (PBF), on the other hand, implies that the infants predominant source of nourishment is breast milk. The infant in this type receives in addition of breast milk, water and water-based drinks (WHO 2001). Complimentary breastfeeding (CBF) or mixed feeding occurs where factory produced baby formula is the primary source of nourishment for the infant, the breast milk given occasionally.

In Nigeria, the perception of mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding is discouraging as most mothers complain of financial and physical challenges, not having enough breast milk, working and breastfeeding, breast and nipples problem and pressure from family and sometimes the effects of drugs taken while breast feeding (Agunbaide & Ogunleye 2012). These factors have hampered the practice of EBF.

Parts of the efforts to promote improved breastfeeding practices focused on hospital norms and services, legislations and institutional polices, health workers training, mass media campaigns, peer counselling and educating, mother to mother support and a combination of these strategies (Green,1999, till et al, 2004) (Quinn et, al, 2005). Specifically, the United States agency for international development (USAID) in 1996, issues a grant to the academy for international development to design and implement a 10-years program, known as the LINKAGES project, to improve breastfeeding practices rapidly and at scare.

Unluckily this has not yielded and encouraging result. This is because in African countries, the national rate for early initiation of breastfeeding were low, with Ghana having the lowest rate (35%) following by Madagascar (34%)Quin et al, 2005) as it has been ensured that safety, optimum growth, health survival of the human infants; that duration of the breast feeding may also determine the strength of mother/child born and attachment, yet exclusive breast feeding is not being in full practices among nursing mothers because of the long time they spend in the office.

Breastfeeding decline significantly from 1900 to 1960 due to increasing negative attitude towards the practice and the development of infant formulas under modern health centres, human breast milks considered the healthiest form for milk for babies because of its numerous advantages over artificial formulas (National health services 2007).
The practice of EBF has been less than optimal in many developing countries including Nigeria. Variations in the level of practice of exclusive breastfeeding have been related to prominent socio-economic and cultural factors which influence breastfeeding practices. Social factors like maternal education, occupation, family background and utilization of basic health services may affect breastfeeding practices. Educational attainment had been adjudged to be a factor enhancing the practice of exclusive breastfeeding, this is attributed to access to information about exclusive breastfeeding while breastfeeding practices did not differ significantly with respect to maternal age and occupation (Brown, Dewey & Allen, 2012).

Certain assertions have also been identified as undermining factors to the practice of EBF. Such factors include; excessive crying of the infant, the need to resume duty, maternal illness, delay in establishing lactation, poor growth of infant and pressure from family and friends (Ogunbaide & Ogunleye, 2012). Essentially therefore, there is need for improved infant breastfeeding practices because Nigerian children need to be protected. In the area of study, there is paucity of data in studies on EBF. The researchers therefore felt the studies on exclusive breastfeeding on infants should continue until there is a dramatic change in behaviour among Nigeria nursing mothers. This is why the present study is considered necessary because it is an additional effort in the direction of improving exclusive breastfeeding practices in the study area.

1.2 Statement of problem

Despite the effort and strategies that have been put in a place by WHO and UNICEF to increase awareness of exclusive breastfeeding through baby friendly hospitals initiatives in order to reduce complication associated with artificial feeding like respiratory and gastro intestinal infections. It has been observed by the researchers are still reluctant to practice exclusive breastfeeding due to work factor and environment.

Hence, the question “what is the attitude and perception of nursing mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding In Kagarko Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to assess the attitude and perception of nursing mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding In Kagarko Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
The specific objectives of the study are to:

  1. Determine the perception of mothers on exclusive breastfeeding.
  2. Assess the knowledge of mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding.
  3. Identify the practice of exclusive breastfeeding by mothers.

1.4 Research questions

  1. What is the perception of nursing mothers on exclusive breastfeeding?
  2. What is the knowledge of nursing mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding?
  3. What are the practice of exclusive breastfeeding by mothers?

1.5 Hypothesis of the study

  • HO: There is no significant association between the level of knowledge and the practice of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers attending Ante Natal Clinic in Secondary Health Facility in Kagarko Local Government Area, Kaduna state, Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the study

In view of the present problem of working mothers and breast feeding and the dangers of inadequate breast feeding and the adverse effect on mothers and infants, the research study will help the individual mothers, physical education administration, health workers and the entire local government area, especially for those mothers who because of ignorance or selfish interest do not want improvement on adequate breast feeding of the infants. The findings and recommendations of this research are also expected to help the state and the local government area in drawing plans to improve on the breast feeding practices and working mothers.

There will be research on parity, religious affiliation, age and location to the effect of EBF adoption in the area of study. Knowing this will help health workers, particularly health educators in planning their health instruction and teachings of EBF. Attention should then be given to all nursing mothers irrespective of parity, age, religious affiliation to help and encourage them to adopt EBF.

1.7 Scope of the study

This study is carried out on the grounds to examine the attitude and perception of nursing mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding. The study is limited to Kagarko Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

1.8 Operational definition of terms


Clear perception fact or understanding about exclusive breastfeeding.


Position as indicating action, feeling or mood towards exclusive breastfeeding.


The way of carrying out or doing exclusive breast feeding.

Exclusive Breastfeeding:

Feeding of a baby with breast milk only for the first time months of life.


Mammary gland that secrets milk after giving birth

Artificial Milk:

Milk synthesized from plant or animals used to feed a baby.

Complementary Feeding:

Artificial milk given to augment breast milk after 6 months of exclusive feeding.


Baby friendly hospital initiative


Sudden infant death syndrome

1.9 Organization of Study

The study is divided into five chapters.

  • Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study.
  • Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature.
  • The chapter three gives the research methodology while
  • The chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data.
  • The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.

Chapter Five

Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

This study was carried out on the attitude and perception of nursing mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding In Kagarko Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Based on the research findings it can be concluded that majority of the women had high knowledge on EBF, the practice of exclusive breast feeding was highly adequate and knowledge of EBF was significantly associated with practice of EBF. This means that as level of knowledge is high, the practice of EBF is also highly adequate.

The results show very informed breastfeeding women who are committed to learning and practising exclusive breastfeeding. Nurses and breastfeeding support group meetings were the main sources of information on EBF recommendations for breastfeeding women while family relatives heard about the recommendations from them. As a result, Grandmothers, fathers, and grandfathers who are the main decision makers in the family and also constitute breastfeeding mothers’ significant others were found to possess little knowledge on breastfeeding recommendations and hence exerted little commitment to support the practice.

5.2 Recommendations

Based on the conclusions, the following recommendations were made based on baby friendly initiative which outlines the following ten (10) steps to successful breast feeding (WHO and UNICEF, 2009).

  1. Have a written breastfeeding policy that is routinely communicated to all health care staff.
  2. Train all health care staff in skills necessary to implement this policy.
  3. Inform all pregnant women about the benefits and management of EBF.
  4. Help mothers initiate breastfeeding within half an hour of birth.
  5. Show mothers how to breast feed and how to maintain lactation even if they should be separated from their infants.
  6. Give newborn infants no food or drink other than breast milk unless medically indicated.
  7. Practice “rooming-in” allow mother and baby to remain together 24 hours a day.
  8. Encourage breast feeding on demand
  9. Give no artificial teats or pacifiers to breast feeding infants.
  10. Foster the establishment of breastfeeding support groups and refer mothers to them on discharge from the hospital or clinic.

5.3 Implication for Nursing Practice

The study revealed that majority of the respondents had high level of knowledge on EBF. This therefore emphasized the need to intensified awareness creation on EBF during ANC visit. Nursing mothers should be helped in terms of public enlightenment, social support and modeling.

The practice of EBF was highly adequate. The study suggests that counseling and proper education on desirable breastfeeding practices could be adopted to achieve a change in attitude, perceptions, knowledge and practice of EBF.

There was significant association between level of knowledge and the practice of breast feeding. Mothers should be enlightened on techniques and skills involved in practice of EBF. There should be close supervision and monitoring of mothers during breast feeding sessions to ensure that their practices and actions are carried out as expected.

5.4 Suggestion for further studies

Further studies could be carried out in the following areas:

  1. Perceptions and practice of exclusive breast feeding among mothers in Tertiary Health Institution in northern Nigeria
  2. Factors associated with the practice of exclusive breast feeding among mothers in Secondary Health facility in northern Nigeria

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