Attitude And Exclusive Breastfeeding Practice Among Working Mothers Attending In Kakara Ward, Sardauna Local Government Area

Project and Seminar Topics with Materials for Nursing (Science)

Attitude And Exclusive Breastfeeding Practice Among Working Mothers Attending In Kakara Ward, Sardauna Local Government Area


Abstract


The main purpose of this study is the assessment of the attitude of working mothers on exclusive breastfeeding among women in Kakara ward, Sardauna local government area. The specific objectives are to assess the attitude of working mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding in Kakara ward, Sardauna local government area; to ascertain the exclusive breastfeeding practices among working mothers attending Kakara ward, Sardauna local government area; and to identify the barriers to the practice of exclusive breastfeeding among working mothers attending Kakara ward, Sardauna local government area. The study employed a descriptive survey design. The researcher used a self-designed questionnaire with closed-ended questions to collect data that were used for analysis in the study. The data obtained from the participants were descriptively summarized with the use of frequency, percentages and tables. From the findings, majority of the respondents agreed that they exclusively breastfeed their infants; (76.8%) agreed that they frequently breastfeed their infant; (79.0%) give their infant anything before initiating breastfeeding. Also, results show that (34.6%) gave their last baby formula before breast milk after delivery whole (74.6%) gave breast milk only to their last child starting from birth to 6 months. Also, the barriers to the practice of exclusive breastfeeding among working mothers to include non-supportive work place/home environment (70.2%), time constraints (75.8%), low educational and awareness level of the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (77.5%), stress (85.1%), and cost of maintaining healthy diet for the mother (71%). It was recommended that working mothers attending antenatal and child care services should be educated by nurses, midwives and other health care personnel on the need for practicing exclusive breastfeeding as it contains complex nutritional fluid and hormones for the child’s development, which many cannot be included in mixed feeding practices or alternative methods.


Table of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Definition of Terms
  • 1.8 Organization of Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Exclusive Breastfeeding
  • 2.3 Theoretical Review
  • 2.4 Empirical Review

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Research Setting
  • 3.3 Target Population
  • 3.3 Sampling
  • 3.4 Sampling Technique
  • 3.5 Instruments for Data Collection
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Given the high prevalence of malnutrition in Africa, Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF) offers a fool proof method to deter stunted growth and development in the African subcontinent. Malnutrition has been identified to be the direct cause of about 300,000 deaths every year and indirectly the cause of about half the deaths among young children in Africa (Müller et.al, 2015). Hence, the need for exclusive breastfeeding as the first stage of nutrition is the as a way to prevent malnutrition. The early first years of a child’s life is the most vital and delicate period of development. It is the stage at which a healthy child goes through rapid development, psychologically and physically. A child at this stage needs good nutrition for his or her physical, mental, and immune system development. Moreover, it is at this stage that the comprehension and sensation potentials of a child begin to develop, as well as the base of intellectual, social, and emotional competencies of the child (Michaelsen et al, 2016). Sadly, due to the level of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa, most children at this stage in the region are prone to poor nutrition (Bain et al., 2016).

Despite the rapid economic development and concerted efforts to curb malnutrition among infants and mothers, little or no progress has been observed in the developing countries (Gillespie et al., 2015). However, the first stage of ensuring a child’s good nutrition is the ability of the child to be well breastfed. Breastfeeding is the feeding of babies and young children from a woman’s breast, which gives the child the maximum benefits of breast milk (Tyndall et al., 2016). Breast milk is milk that is highly nutritious, which helps a child maintain healthy growth. Breastfeeding is the first stage and the most effective level of primary nutrition. Breastfeeding improves the four aspects of health: mental, spiritual, physical, and social (Bonomi et al, 2015). It not only improves infants’ health, but it is also beneficial to the mother. It delays the menstrual cycle of a mother, which protects her from early pregnancy (Tyndall et al., 2016).

Early breastfeeding of an infant helps in improving the child’s psychological and physical health, as well as improving the child’s immune system (National Resources Defense Council, 2016). The benefits of breastfeeding are numerous. The human milk glycans contain oligosaccharide, which helps in the formation of natural immunological mechanism. This helps to protect children against infectious diseases (Lamberti et al, 2016). Breast milk also helps decrease the level of contact with contaminated foods and drinks that might result in the contraction of diseases. However, in order for an infant to get maximum benefits of breast milk, the mother must have an adequate diet. Malnutrition in mothers increases the level of risks that a mother would face during pregnancy and delivery. Such risks include high level of and maternal infant mortality and morbidity, insufficient provision of breast milk, and premature birth (Ransom & Elder, 2017).

Exclusive breastfeeding between the first day to six months is a key child survival support (Lamberti et al., 2016). Children who are breastfed for 2 years of age have a lower risk of diarrheal infections and death (Lamberti et al., 2016). However, despite the extreme importance of the practice of breastfeeding or specifically exclusive breastfeeding, the percentage of this practice is very low all over the world and most especially in the developing nations (Lamberti et al., 2016). Forty seven to fifty seven percent of babies who are less than two months and 25-31 percent of babies who are between 2-5 months in developing countries are exclusively breastfed, whereas all other babies that are above 6 months of age receive any kind of food supplement apart from breast milk (Black et al., 2008).

Factors such as culture, beliefs and perceptions, and lack of awareness are influencing or hindering the practice of EBF. Religious beliefs are one of the factors that hinder most people from practicing exclusive breastfeeding. Muslim and Hindu followers are an example of societies that, despite possibly having knowledge of the importance of exclusive breastfeeding, still consider feeding their babies honey, dates among others (Chagan, Fayyaz, & Aamir, 2016). The opinion of breastfeeding mothers on the determinants of breastfeeding refers to their attitudes or beliefs about the effects of exclusive breastfeeding practice on the child’s development and health. Most mothers believe that breastfeeding has a lot to do with their socioeconomic status. They are also of the idea that breastfeeding practice depends on the maternal level of education, hence the researcher intends to carry out this study.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Poor nutrition, or malnutrition, results in growth abnormality and easy contraction of infectious diseases due to a weak immune system that is caused by the disease. It also causes problems such as deficiency in learning, lack of development of social skills, behavioral abnormality, and defects in educational achievement (Michaelsen et al., 2016). Research has shown with some working mothers on the issue of exclusive breastfeeding, most working mothers supplement breast milk with water and herbs (tea and honey) (Hassan, 2016). Working mothers believe that the practice of breastfeeding has a lot to do with socioeconomic status. They also believed that breastfeeding depended on their education. Bamsaye (2013) found that some breastfeeding mothers really do not believe in the benefits of breastfeeding. This continuously reported to her babies with other supplements such as water and prepared baby food. The concern of doctors, health officials and the organization is ultimately the decline in the practice itself of breastfeeding. It was based on these reasons that it became necessary to carry out this study on the attitude of working mothers on exclusive breastfeeding among women in Kakara ward, Sardauna local government area.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The main purpose of this study is to assess the attitude of working mothers on exclusive breastfeeding among women in Kakara ward, Sardauna local government area. Specifically, the following objectives will guide the study;

  1. To assess the attitude of working mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding in Kakara ward, Sardauna local government area
  2. To ascertain the exclusive breastfeeding practices among working mothers attending Kakara ward, Sardauna local government area
  3. To identify the barriers to the practice of exclusive breastfeeding among working mothers attending Kakara ward, Sardauna local government area

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions were formulated to guide the study based on the research objectives;

  1. What is the attitude of working mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding in Kakara ward, Sardauna local government area?
  2. What are the exclusive breastfeeding practices among working mothers attending Kakara ward, Sardauna local government area?
  3. What are the barriers to the practice of exclusive breastfeeding among working mothers attending Kakara ward, Sardauna local government area?

1.5 Hypothesis

HO1: There is no significant relationship between the attitude of working mothers on the practice of exclusive breastfeeding among women in Kakara ward, Sardauna local government area


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be of great significance to the mothers and women of reproductive age as it will enlighten them on the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding practice on infant development as well as the consequences of inappropriate practices. Nurses and healthcare professionals could use the findings of this study in educating working mothers on adopting healthy behaviours in order to reduce the risk of malnutrition, illnesses and under-development of children. Also, the findings of this study will be of great access for possible intervention strategies and policy formulation by health authorities and stakeholders for the benefit of the society and maternal health. Furthermore, the findings will be beneficial to women of reproductive age because it is hoped that it will help them to understand the right attitude to exhibit to the practice of exclusive breastfeeding as well as encourage others to adopt such practices. Also, the findings would enable service providers to determine the need and techniques of persuading women to maintain a positive attitude towards exclusive breastfeeding practice. Lastly, this study will contribute to the existing body of literature and serve as a reference for future research in related fields.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Attitude:

Refers to the perception towards exclusive breastfeeding among working mothersin Sardauna local government area.

Practice:

Refers to the level of adoption and utilization of exclusive breastfeeding among working mothers in Sardauna local government area.

Exclusive Breastfeeding:

Is defined as no other food or drink, not even water, except breast milk (including milk expressed or from a wet nurse) for 6 months of life, but allows the infant to receive ORS, drops and syrups (vitamins, minerals and medicines).


1.8 Organization of Study

The study comprises of 5 chapters. In chapter one, the concepts are introduced and the problem of the study is established with the research objectives and questions. Chapter two presents the literature review while chapter three presents the research methodology. The fourth chapter presents the results and discussion, and the last chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

Although exclusive breastfeeding is one of the most common type of breastfeeding practiced by working mothers, it was shown by the outcome of the research that only few of the respondents practiced mixed feeding methods for their children this is to say, that where exclusive breastfeeding is absent, mixed feeding is practiced on the child, by the working mothers, hence significant difference existed between exclusive breastfeeding and mixed feeding practices. The focus of this study was an assessment of attitude and exclusive breastfeeding practice among working mothers attending Kakara ward, Sardauna local government area, Elele, Rivers state. In view of the major findings, it can be revealed that, the barriers to the practice of exclusive breastfeeding among working mothers to include non supportive work place/home environment (70.2%), time constraints (75.8%), low educational and awareness level of the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (77.5%), stress (85.1%), and cost of maintaining healthy diet for the mother (71%). The study concluded that the knowledge on the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding among working mothers influence their attitude on exclusive breastfeeding adoption and practices.


5.2 Recommendations

  1. Working mothers attending antenatal and child care services should be educated by nurses, midwives and other health care personnel on the need for practicing exclusive breastfeeding as it contains complex nutritional fluid and hormones for the child’s development, which many cannot be included in mixed feeding practices or alternative methods.
  2. Working mothers should be encouraged by childcare centres on the adjustment of breastfeeding patterns to suit their work schedule and eliminate other constraints faced during exclusive breastfeeding as it helps to reduce the risk of chronic conditions and infections associated with alternative feeding practices.
  3. Health agents and stakeholders should organize frequent seminars and workshops for educated mothers to create awareness and practices of exclusive breastfeeding despite their schedules and beliefs. Also, this should be extended to the community level to include family and partners’ support in the exclusive breastfeeding agenda.

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