Factors That Contribute To Inadequate Exclusives Breastfeeding Of Children In Rivers State

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

Factors That Contribute To Inadequate Exclusives Breastfeeding Of Children In Rivers State


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of Study

Milk is the primary source of sustenance for babies until they are able to digest other meals (UNICEF, 2006). Breast milk is the milk generated by a human female’s breast (or mammary glands) for her infant progeny. When a woman and kid are exclusively breastfed, there are health benefits for both mother and child. Infants benefit from exclusive breastfeeding because they have a lower incidence of infant death syndrome. Increased IQ, decreased Cold and Flu resistance, lower incidence of pediatric diabetes, asthma and eczema, lower risk of middle ear infection, dental problems Obesity in childhood, the risk of autism, the danger of childhood leukemia, and the development of psychological disorders, particularly in adopted children, all reduce the chance of HIV transmission from mother to child (UNICEF, 2006). Breastfeeding for two years is more cost-effective than any other method of feeding the baby, especially in the first six months (WHO, 2010). Breastfeeding may prevent mothers from breast cancer and some forms of ovarian malignancies, and it can also be used as a natural means of family planning (Akbari, et al., 2011; WHO, 2011). UNICEF recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and continuous nursing for at least two years (UNICEF, 2006). A child’s survival, growth, and development are all dependent on proper feeding practices (Kumar, 2006). Withdrawing the nursing process before the time suggested for children will increase the danger of illness in the infant (AED, 2004). The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) recommends that infants be breastfed exclusively for the first six months of life, then supplemented with appropriate complementary foods (UNICEF, 2008). (MOH; 2004). Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood is critical for children’s growth, health, and development to their full potential (WHO; 2009). According to the Millennium Development Goals, exclusive breast feeding (EBF) for six months is one of the most effective strategies for achieving Millennium Development Goal #4, which is to reduce child mortality rates (Bryce. et al. 2006). Breast milk feeds infants with essential nutrients, and human milk is an endogenous nutrient reservoir that contains all nutrients (WHO, 2011). For the first few months of life, up to two years of age, it provides all of the energy and nutrients required for growth and development (WHO, 2011). Malnutrition causes 60 percent of under-five mortality, either directly or indirectly, with more than two-thirds of those deaths being linked to poor breastfeeding practices during infancy (Gupta, 2006). Breastfeeding can save the lives of up to 1.5 million infants each year because it gives significant protection.Breast milk feeds infants with essential nutrients, and human milk is an endogenous nutrient reservoir that contains all nutrients (WHO, 2011). For the first few months of life, up to two years of age, it provides all of the energy and nutrients required for growth and development (WHO, 2011). Malnutrition causes 60 percent of under-five mortality, either directly or indirectly, with more than two-thirds of those deaths being linked to poor breastfeeding practices during infancy (Gupta, 2006). Breastfeeding can save the lives of up to 1.5 million infants each year by providing significant illness prevention (WHO, 2003). Orphaned children are more likely to die before reaching the age of two than children whose mothers survive (UNICEF, 2007, Sloan et al., 2008, WHO, 2011).


1.2 Statement Of Problem

According to UNICEF, 10 million deaths in under- 5 children were recorded in 2006, of which 4 million died within the 1st month of life and half within the first 24 hours ( Onah, Osuorah, Ebeneche, J., Ezechuckwu, Ekwochi, & Ndukwu (2014).). These mortality rates could have been reduced to the barest minimum through support to mothers to practice exclusive breastfeeding.Efforts have been made by the government, donors, non-governmental organizations, and other stakeholders to protect, support, and promote exclusive breastfeeding, but the practice is still insufficient. Observations made during clinical support supervision revealed that the majority of nursing mothers admitted with children under the age of six months had already begun taking complementary food.


1.3 Objective Of Study

The following are primary objectives of this study :

  1. To assess if nursing mothers have knowledge of exclusive breast feeding.
  2. To determine the demographic factors impending exclusive breastfeeding in children.
  3. To assess social –cultural factors that influence inadequate exclusive breastfeeding of children.

1.4 Research Question

  1. Do Nursing Mothers have knowledge of exclusive breast feeding?
  2. What are the demographic factors impending exclusive breast feeding in children?
  3. What are the social-cultural factors that influence exclusive inadequate breastfeeding of children?

1.5 Significance Of Study

This study will be of significant to health workers should intensify efforts at continuously informing all pregnant women about the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding, as well as show mothers how to carry out exclusive breastfeeding and how to maintain lactation even if they should be separated from their infants by going to farm or office work. Policies should also be put in place to provide nursing mothers with favorable working conditions that would provide them with shorter working days with full pay, after they return from post natal/maternity leave. This will help to reduce the decline of exclusive breastfeeding practice resulting from employment. To achieve this, the government should educate employers of labour on the needfor post natal/maternal leave, to allow mothers the opportunity to exclusively breastfeed their babies.


1.6 Scope Of Study

This study focuses on examining the factors that contributes to inadequate exclusives breastfeeding of children in Nigeria. This study is delimited to Nursing mothers in Port harcourt, Rivers state.


1.7 Limitation Of Study

Finance, inadequate materials and time constraint were the challenges the researchers encountered during the course of the study.


1.8 Definition Of Terms

Exclusive Breastfeeding:

This means that the infant receives only breast milk. No other liquids or solids are given – not even water – with the exception of oral rehydration solution, or drops/syrups of vitamins, minerals or medicines.

Factors:

A circumstance, fact, or influence that contributes to a result.


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