Impact Of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Infants In Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Impact Of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Infants In Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State (Charles)


Abstract


This study was carried out to assess the impact of exclusive breastfeeding among infants in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State. The study specifically was aimed to ascertain the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on infants in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State; determine the extent at which mothers practice exclusive breastfeeding in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State; and identify the factors influencing women practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of mothers residing in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent to which mothers practice exclusive breastfeeding in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State is high. The study also revealed that the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on infants in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State includes; improves infants immune health, reduces sudden infant death syndrome, reduces child obesity, lessens infants tendency to develop allergic disease, improves infants cognitive development. Therefore, it is recommended that there is need for and adequate implementation of national health education campaigns that encourage women to breastfeed, especially during pregnancy by all primary health care nurses. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is the practice of providing a baby with only breast milk during the first six months of life, with the exception of any supplements, vitamins, or medications (Dukuzumuremyi et al. 2020). The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) recommend that breastfeeding should start within the first hour of birth, continue exclusively for the first six months of life, and then be supplemented with other foods for at least two more years (Gertosio et al. 2015). Infants who are not exclusively breastfed have a higher risk of developing a variety of developmental diseases, including pneumonia, diabetes mellitus, sudden infant death syndrome, malocclusion, and diarrhea (Ogbo et al. 2018).

EBF is an important public health strategy for improving the health of mothers and children by lowering the number of deaths and illnesses among children and helping to keep the cost of healthcare in check (Al-Binali, 2012). EBF promotes healthy brain growth and is associated with improved performance on intelligence tests in both children and adolescents (Victora et al. 2015). Furthermore, it has been shown that breastfeeding makes it less likely for mothers to have hemorrhages, ovarian cancer, postpartum depression, endometrial cancer, and breast cancer. It also makes it easier for mothers to lose weight (Holtzman, et al. 2018).

The benefits of EBF have been documented by various studies and bodies. As of 2019, 50.7% of infants 0 to 6 months old are exclusively breastfed globally (Neves, 2021). Nigeria has the lowest rate of EBF (17%), behind fellow African countries such as Ghana (53.4%), the Republic of Benin (43.1%), and Cameroon (23.5%) (Agho, et al. 2011; & Dudu et al. 2016). According to Gayawan et al. (2014), Jigawa, Katsina, and Yobe states have lower rates of EBF in Nigeria. Although the exact rate of EBF in Jigawa state has not yet been reported, in Kano, its neighboring state, only 18.6% of mothers exclusively breastfed their babies, and 58% of children younger than 5 years old were underweight (National Population Commission, 2013). Additionally, factors associated with EBF practice in Nigeria were respondents’ level of knowledge, professional category, having an older infant, and vaginal birth (Sadoh, 2011). Other causes of poor EBF practice were geographical variations, traditional beliefs, practices, and customs, place of delivery, mothers’ attitudes toward EBF, and poor hospital and healthcare practices and policies (Salami, 2006).

Given that women of reproductive age, who are the focus of EBF, have inadequate knowledge and that there are significant geographical variations in Nigeria, this lack of knowledge further contributes to attitudes and behaviors that do not support EBF. Hence, this study seek to assess the impact of exclusive breastfeeding among infants in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Pregnancy is a delicate time of biological, physical, and social transitions that impact both mother and child. The manner in which a mother feeds her newborn is one of the most consequential factors affecting these transitions after delivery. Breastfeeding is the normative standard for newborn nutrition, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (2012), and major health organizations suggest that a mother-baby dyad maintain exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) until the child is six months old to get optimum infant and maternal health benefits (AAP, 2012; American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists [ACOG], 2013; and World Health Organization [WHO], 2015). EBF is associated with a decrease in incidences of otitis media and nonspecific gastroenteritis in newborns and a reduction in the risk of breast and ovarian cancer in mothers (Ip et al., 2007).

Notably, breastfeeding is the most natural method for humans (mammals) to feed their young, and it is the primary source of sustenance during the first few months of life (WHO 2018). In addition, research have shown that exclusive breastfeeding for the first six (6) months is the ideal method of infant nutrition and should be maintained even if the child consumes other foods thereafter.

In Nigeria, it has been shown that EBF reduces malnutrition among babies and infant mortality (Aborode et al. 2021). The two most critical aspects of EBF practice are initiation and duration (Al-Nuaimee, et al. 2019). In order to promote infant health and lower infant mortality in Nigeria, the current study aims to assess the impact of exclusive breastfeeding among infants in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of exclusive breastfeeding among infants in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State.

Other objectives of this study are:

  1. Ascertain the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on infants in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State.
  2. Determine the extent to which mothers practice exclusive breastfeeding in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State.
  3. Identify the factors influencing women practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. What are the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on infants in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State?
  2. What is the extent to which mothers practice exclusive breastfeeding in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State?
  3. What are the factors influencing women practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: the extent to which mothers practice exclusive breastfeeding in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State is low.
  • Ha: the extent to which mothers practice exclusive breastfeeding in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State is high.

1.6 Significance of the Study

It is believed that the outcomes of the research will give a current perceptual database that will enlighten all of us and, more significantly, policymakers about the sentiments and perspectives of mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding, so that relevant alternatives to encourage the practice of exclusive breastfeeding and its support may be established by Breastfeeding moms, helpers, and the Nigerian public.
In addition, academics and students will benefit from this study since it will act as a resource for future research and add to the body of knowledge.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on examine the impact of exclusive breastfeeding among infants in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State. Geographically, this study will be carried out among women residents in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Exclusive Breastfeeding:

Exclusive breastfeeding means that the infant receives only breast milk

Knowledge:

To have information in one’s mind as a result of experience or because you have learned or been told.

Attitude:

The way one thinks, feels or behaves about somebody or something.

Nursing Mothers:

A mother who is breast-feeding her baby.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of exclusive breastfeeding among infants in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to assess the impact of exclusive breastfeeding among infants in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State. The study specifically was aimed to ascertain the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on infants in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State; determine the extent to which mothers practice exclusive breastfeeding in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State; and identify the factors influencing women practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were mothers residing in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The extent to which mothers practice exclusive breastfeeding in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State is adequate.
  2. The impact of exclusive breastfeeding on infants in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State includes; improves infants immune health, reduces sudden infant death syndrome, reduces child obesity, lessens infants tendency to develop allergic disease, improves infants cognitive development.
  3. The factors influencing women practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State includes; social engagement, shyness, non flexible work environment, body fitness, and health condition.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Advertisement of baby formulas should be followed with disclaimers that exclusive breast feeding is the best option for both mothers and infants.
  2. There is need for and adequate implementation of national health education campaigns that encourage women to breastfeed, especially during pregnancy by all primary health care nurses.
  3. Enhancement and development of policies, rules, regulations, legislation and lows that appropriately promote as well supports breastfeeding in and outside work locations.
  4. Emphasis on legislation and policies that mandate employers to facilitate lactation in the workplace, including breaks for breastfeeding women and access to a private area for breastfeeding or milk expression that is not a bathroom.
  5. Expansion the maternity leave duration for at least pied six months for all working mothers.
  6. Multinational companies in the state should lay more emphasis on labour intensive rather than capital intensive. This would help for the employment of manual labourers.

Project Material Download

6,000 Naira

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦6,500 to Any of the Account Below

Access Bank PlcAcc No: 0811003731
Samphina Academy
Current Account
Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($25)
FOR GHANIAN STUDENTS
Make Payment of 200 GHS to 0553978005 | Douglas Cloud Osabutey | MTN MoMo

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Impact Of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Infants In Umuoji Idemili North Local Government Area Of Anambra State

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.