Factors Contributing To Inadequate Exclusive Breast Feeding Of Children Aged 0-6 Months (A Case Study Of Ipav Gboko LGA Benue State)
This study was carried out to examine the factors contributing to inadequate exclusive breast feeding of children aged 0-6 months (a case study of Ipav Gboko LGA Benue state). Specifically, the study was structured to ascertain if women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA know what exclusive breast feeding is; determine if women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA practice exclusive breast feeding; and identify how often women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA breastfeed. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. Hence, the questionnaire was used for data collection which was raised against a four Likert scale of Strongly Agree(SA), Agree(A), Disagree(SD) and Strongly Disagree(D) while the data collected were analyzed using frequency tables. The hypotheses test was conducted using chi-square statistical tool.A total of 147 respondents were conveniently selected as sample size comprising of women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA Benue state, and 141 were validated. From the responses obtained and analyzed, the findings revealed thatwomen of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA knows what exclusive breastfeeding is. The study also showed that women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA practices exclusive breastfeeding. And women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA breastfeed frequently. The study therefore recommends that advertisement of baby formulas should be followed with disclaimers that exclusive breast feeding is the best option for both mothers and infants. And implementation of national health education campaigns that encourage women to breastfeed, especially during pregnancy by all primary health care nurses.
Keywords: Reproductive age women, Exclusive, Breastfeeding.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
- 4.5 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Breastfeeding is the process of feeding an infant mother’s milk by direct nipple-to-mouth contact or through expressed breast milk. Colostrum, which is the first yellowish and sticky milk produced from the mother’s breasts from 37 weeks of pregnancy to approximately seven days after delivery, and mature milk, which is white in color and produced efficiently from around the tenth day following delivery, are the two forms of breast milk (Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. 2014). Clinicians may be aware of the significance of breast feeding for infant health in underdeveloped countries, but they may be uninformed of the possible long-term health advantages for mothers and babies in developed countries, especially in relation to obesity, blood pressure, cholesterol, and cancer, according to Bartick and Reinhold (2010). The World Health Organization (WHO) advises six months of exclusive breast feeding (breast milk alone; no water, other fluids, or food) followed by two years of complementary breast feeding. This concept has been embraced by the governments of Nigeria, the United Kingdom, etc., but it also offers a serious problem for nations such as Nigeria and the United States, where breast feeding rates have been low for decades and may be very hard to change (Bartick, et al 2010).
Adequate nutrition throughout infancy and early childhood is essential for good growth, health, and development in children. The greatest source of nutrition for an infant is breast milk, and it has been established universally that nursing is healthful for both mother and child. The health and well-being of newborn infants are dependent on breast milk. Infants who are breastfed develop quicker, suffer less illness, and die at a lower rate than those who are not (John, 2005).
The National Infant and Young Child Feeding (NIYCF) operational strategy builds upon previous and ongoing accomplishments to promote healthy infant and young child feeding. These include exclusive breastfeeding for six months and continued breastfeeding for two years with introduction of appropriate and timely complementary feeding, implementation and monitoring of the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes, and maternity protection for working women. In the preceding decade, the government has developed programmes targeted at enhancing the well-being of infants and young children.
In addition, breastfeeding is a natural mode of infant feeding that consists of two basic methods: exclusive and partial, with the latter being the more common. However, exclusivity is the most suitable and absolute design with the largest domino impact. However, effective mental, emotional, and physical collaboration between the mother and her newborn is necessary for the intended result (Narzary, 2009).
Breastfeeding promotes uterine involution and, thus, the rapid recovery of uterine tone in the mother. It strengthens the bond between mother and child. It is inexpensive, which is crucial in the Third World, and practical. Due to the prolactin-raising effect of nipple stimulation, breastfeeding delays the recovery of normal ovarian function and so increases the duration between births (Otoide, Oronsaye,& Okonofua, 2001).
This latter effect also helps the infant by decreasing the likelihood that a subsequent pregnancy may displace the infant from the breast. In many developing countries, weaning meals are poorly insufficient, and children who are weaned too early are at danger of developing protein-calorie shortages, such as kwashiorkor and marasmus, which may lead to general debility, stunted growth, wasting, and even death. Children who are breastfed have a greater chance of survival than those who are not in places with little or no medical resources (Otoide, et al 2001). From the aforementioned this study seek to examine the Factors Contributing To Inadequate Exclusive Breast Feeding Of Children Aged 0-6 Months (a Case Study Of Ipav Gboko LGA Benue State).
1.3 Statement of the Problem
Pregnancy is a delicate time of biological, physical, and social transitions that impact both mother and child. The manner in which a mother feeds her newborn is one of the most consequential factors affecting these transitions after delivery. Breastfeeding is the normative standard for newborn nutrition, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (2012), and major health organizations suggest that a mother-baby dyad maintain exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) until the child is six months old to get optimum infant and maternal health benefits (AAP, 2012; American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists [ACOG], 2013; and World Health Organization [WHO], 2015). EBF is associated with a decrease in incidences of otitis media and nonspecific gastroenteritis in newborns and a reduction in the risk of breast and ovarian cancer in mothers (Ip et al., 2007).
Notably, breastfeeding is the most natural method for humans (mammals) to feed their young, and it is the primary source of sustenance during the first few months of life (WHO 2018). In addition, research have shown that exclusive breastfeeding for the first six (6) months is the ideal method of infant nutrition and should be maintained even if the child consumes other foods thereafter.
Recent efforts have been concentrated on promoting exclusive breastfeeding, which has considerably expanded breastfeeding knowledge. Hospitals and health centers have the ability to educate pregnant and nursing mothers about the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding and the actions necessary to make it a reality. There is a global trend toward less breastfeeding. Lack of trust that the child is receiving enough, rising urban women work load demands that cause them to be separated from their newborns for extended periods of time, reduction in social support, discomfort with breastfeeding in public, and aggressive advertising of commercial milk formulas are all factors contributing to the drop in breastfeeding. Globally, there are fresh EBF promotion projects. Among them are the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes and the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative [BFHI]. Mothers may acquire information on EBF during antenatal clinic visits and after hospital delivery. Radio and television are very effective in communicating breastfeeding knowledge to the public. In the light of the above, this study aims at ascertaining the Factors Contributing To Inadequate Exclusive Breast Feeding Of Children Aged 0-6 Months (a Case Study Of Ipav Gboko LGA Benue State).
1.3 Objectives of the Study
Research objectives are just as useful as they are in most other aspects of life. According to Torty (2021), “Research objectives provide the researcher with a wonderful feeling of aim and direction.” Hence, the purpose of the study is to examine the Factors Contributing To Inadequate Exclusive Breast Feeding Of Children Aged 0-6 Months (A Case Study Of Ipav Gboko LGA Benue State). The specific objectives include;
- To ascertain if women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA know what exclusive breast feeding is.
- To determine if women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA practice exclusive breast feeding.
- To identify how often women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA breastfeed.
1.4 Research Questions
Research questions provide structure and direction for a study in scientific inquiry. As a result, according to Torty (2021), “research questions should truly constitute an enlargement of the research problem.”
The following research questions were posed in accordance with the study’s objectives:
- Do women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA know what exclusive breastfeeding is?
- Do women of reproductive age Ipav Gboko LGA practice exclusive breastfeeding?
- How often do women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA breastfeed?
1.5. Research Hypothesis
A hypothesis refers to an experimental statement, tentative in nature, showing the relationship between two or more variables. It is open to testing and can be accepted or rejected depending on whether it agrees or disagrees with the statistical test.
The two hypotheses that were tested in this study are the null and alternative hypotheses.
The null hypothesis reflects that there will be no observed effect in our experiment. In a mathematical formulation of the null hypothesis, there will typically be an equal sign. This hypothesis is denoted by H0. The null hypothesis is what we attempt to find evidence against in our hypothesis test.
The alternative, or experimental hypothesis, reflects that there will be an observed effect on our experiment. In a mathematical formulation of the alternative hypothesis, there will typically be an inequality, or not equal to the symbol. This hypothesis is denoted by either Ha or H1. The alternative hypothesis is what we are attempting to demonstrate in an indirect way through the use of our hypothesis test. If the null hypothesis is rejected, then we accept the alternative hypothesis. If the null hypothesis is not rejected, then we do not accept the alternative hypothesis.
The study will test the validity of the following null hypothesis:
- H01: Women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA does not know what exclusive breastfeeding is.
- H02: Women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA do not practice exclusive breastfeeding.
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is believed that the outcomes of the research will give a current perceptual database that will enlighten all of us and, more significantly, policymakers about the sentiments and perspectives of mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding, so that relevant alternatives to encourage the practice of exclusive breastfeeding and its support may be established by Breastfeeding moms, helpers, and the Nigerian public.
In addition, academics and students will benefit from this study since it will act as a resource for future research and add to the body of knowledge.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study will be focusing on the factors influencing the practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Ipav Gboko LGA Benue state. Specifically, it will be focusing on ascertaining if women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA know what exclusive breast feeding is; determining if women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA practice exclusive breast feeding; and identifying how often women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA breastfeed. The respondents for this study will be obtained among selected women of reproductive age inIpav Gboko LGA Benue state.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the absence of literature on the discourse of police brutality on students and the parameters for measuring it in relation to whether it affects them positively or negatively. Thus much time and organization was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection. Also the study is limited in sample size and geography covering only Karu Local Government in Nasarawa State. Therefore findings of this study cannot be used for generalization thus creating a gap for further studies.
Also encountered was time constraint as the researcher had to carry out this research in addition to attending lectures and other educational activities required of him.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Exclusive breastfeeding means that the infant receives only breast milk
To have information in one’s mind as a result of experience or because you have learned or been told.
The way one thinks, feels or behaves about somebody or something.
A mother who is breast-feeding her baby.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
This chapter summarizes the findings on the factors contributing to inadequate exclusive breast feeding of children aged 0-6 months. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for further studies.
5.2 Summary of the Findings
In this study, we examined the factors contributing to inadequate exclusive breast feeding of children aged 0-6 months in Ipav Gboko LGA Benue state. The study specifically was carried out to ascertain if women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA know what exclusive breast feeding is; determine if women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA practice exclusive breast feeding; and identify how often women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA breastfeed
This research is reported in five distinct yet interrelated chapters. In the chapter one we describes the study objectives clearly by stating the motive behind this study. Research hypotheses were developed for testing while the scope of this research was defined as well.
In the chapter two, a review of related and relevant literature were carried out. The concept of breast feeding formed the introduction for this chapter. Exclusive breast feeding, oral feeding, consequences of oral feeding in infant or new born, breast milk composition, component, the concept of public health benefit of breast, and physiological and psychosocial benefit of breastfeeding etc.
The study was anchored on Health Belief Model and the Health Promotion Model, by (Becker, 1974), and Fertility decision-making model by Bulatao and Lee (1983).
Empirical works were also reviewed in the review. Notable works such as studies conducted by Otoo, Larty & Perez-Escamilla (2019), were reviewed. Further studies carried out by Perez-Escamillia, et al. (2015)were also recognized.
Adopting the survey research design, responses were obtained from staff in the administrative and finance department of the federal ministry of finance, Abuja using the convenient sampling method selected 141 participants as the sample size participants. Responses received were analyzed using frequency and percentages tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool.
Our findings from this study revealed that;
- Women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA knows what exclusive breastfeeding is.
- Women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA knows that exclusive breastfeeding helps babies to fight viruses and bacteria.
- Women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA knows that exclusive breastfeeding helps the proper growth and development of their babies.
- The various source of information on exclusive breastfeeding available for reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA include; ante natal health talks, mass media, formal lectures, seminar/workshop, and work exposure.
- Women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA practices exclusive breastfeeding
- Women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA breastfeed frequently.
- Women of reproductive age in Ipav Gboko LGA has a good attitude towards exclusive breast feeding.
Inline with the findings of this study, the researcher proffer the following recommendations;
- Rural women should be taught on the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding
- Advertisement of baby formulas should be followed with disclaimers that exclusive breast feeding is the best option for both mothers and infants.
- Implementation of national health education campaigns that encourage women to breastfeed, especially during pregnancy by all primary health care nurses.
- Enhancement and development of policies, rules, regulations, legislation and lows that appropriately promote as well supports breastfeeding in and outside work locations.
- Emphasis on legislation and policies that mandate employers to facilitate lactation in the workplace, including breaks for breastfeeding women and access to a private area for breastfeeding or milk expression that is not a bathroom.
- Expansion the maternity leave duration for at least pied six months for all working mothers.
- Multinational companies in the state should lay more emphasis on labour intensive rather than capital intensive. This would help for the employment of manual labourers.
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