The Role Of Dialogue And Advocacy Communication In Promoting Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Young Mothers (A Case Study Of Young Mothers In Owerri North Local Government Area)

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Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication


This research work is dedicated to all mothers in our society and to my family.


I am grateful to the Almighty God who enabled me, even in the face of obvious difficulties to complete this work.
Writing this project would not have been possible without the help of my supervisor, Mrs. Ikechukwu Linda and other lecturers in the Department of Mass Communication.

Similarly, this work would have been a futile effort but for the financial assistance and encouragement by my Elder Brothers, Mr. Patrick and Mr. Fabian Okeh.

I am equally grateful to my fellow colleagues in the Department of Mass Communication, my friend’s especially Mrs. Chioma Ogu and Mrs. Chinonso Onwuenenyi for being steadfast.

Finally, my sincere gratitude goes to my lovely husband Mr. Regis O. Akagha, my kids Makayla and Eliora Akagha, to my parents Mr. and Mrs. F.A. Okeh and my parent’s in-law Mr. and Mrs. Reginald O. Akagha. I thank you all.


Dialogue and advocacy communication is very important in all aspect of our lives. It is crucial in the process of communal living. It is the most important avenue for educating, enlightening women in rural areas to participate vigorously in any social change. This study is aimed at assessing the role of dialogue and advocacy in promoting exclusive breastfeeding, to find out the women’s views and discussion on exclusive breastfeeding.

In carrying out this study, survey method was used in obtaining data for the study in all 384 respondents were sampled using purposive sampling techniques and the entire questionnaires distributed were returned. Findings showed that dialogue and advocacy through interpersonal communication helps in promoting exclusive breastfeeding practice in Owerri North L.G.A, by giving room for immediate feedback through verbal responses and non-verbal disclosure. These thereby facilitating behavioural modification and as well empowering them as regards to development.

The outcome of the study also showed that women in Owerri North L.G.A get their major source of breastfeeding information through health that breastfeeding information can be best communicated to them through various women group meeting which is one of the channels of dialogue and advocacy communication more than any other source. The researcher recommended that any programme that will help or encourage the spread of information about exclusive breastfeeding should be embraced or adopted.

Table Of Contents

  • Title page i
  • Certification ii
  • Approval page iii
  • Dedication iv
  • Acknowledgement v
  • Abstract vii
  • Table of contents viii

Chapter One:Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the study 1
  • 1.2 Statements of problems 6
  • 1.3 Objectives of study 8
  • 1.4 Research questions 9
  • 1.5 Scope of the study 9
  • 1.6 Limitation of the study 10
  • 1.7 Significance of the study 11
  • 1.8 Definition of terms 12

Chapter Two Literature Review

  • 2.1 Sources of literature 16
  • 2.2 The definition of exclusive breastfeeding 16
  • 2.2.1 Brief history of breastfeeding 17
  • 2.2.2 The role of community dialogue and advocacy in promoting exclusive breastfeeding among young mothers in Owerri North L.G.A 25
  • 2.2.3 Benefits of exclusive breastfeeding
  • 2.2.4 Health communication and advocacy on Breastfeeding practice 42
  • 2.2.5 Health issues involved in breastfeeding 46
  • 2.2.6 Role of exclusive breastfeeding in infant health outcomes
  • 2.3 Theoretical frame work
  • 2.3.1 Attitude and attitude exchange theory 2.3.2 Social Exchange theory
  • 2.4 Summary of the review 49

Chapter Three Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research design 52
  • 3.2 Area of study 53
  • 3.3 Population of study 53
  • 3.4 Sources of data 54
  • 3.5 Sample/sampling procedures 55
  • 3.6 Instrument for data collection 56
  • 3.7 Validity of the instrument 57
  • 3.8 Administration of instrument 57
  • 3.9 Method of data analysis 58

Chapter Four:Data Presentation And Analysis

  • 4.1 Demographic data 59
  • 4.2 Answers to research questions 61
  • 4.3 Discussion of findings 72

Chapter Five:Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary 73
  • 5.2 Conclusion 74
  • 5.3 Recommendations 75
  • References 78
  • Appendix 81
  • Questionnaires 84

Chapter One:Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Following recent survey by the federal ministry of health in August, 2012 shows that Nigeria has one of the lowest exclusive breastfeeding rates in the Africa continent with recent data indicating that the percentage of infants exclusively breastfed to the age of six months has decreased from 17 percent, while early initiation of complementary feeding before the age of six months puts at 76 percent.

This is as a result of misinformation and misunderstanding on exclusive breastfeeding among young mothers resulting to increase in infant deaths in the country. Lack of public awareness about benefits of exclusive breastfeeding. Lack of conducive working environment for nursing mothers, marketing of breast milk substitutes and attributes of some health workers and family members are fingered as reasons why many children are deprived of breastfeeding.

Chris Osa Isokpunwu, Deputy Director/Head of Nutrition, Federal Ministry of Health, said that breastfeeding is the best way to provide new born with essential nutrients they need as it is a window of children’s survival, optional growth and development into adolescence and adulthood. Further more, research has shown that healthy infants do not need additional water during the first 6 months if they are exclusively breastfeed because breast milk contains the nutrients an infant needs in the first 6 months of life, including fat, protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals and water. While breast milk is easily digested and efficiently used, it contains bioactive factors that augment infant’s immature immune system providing protection against infection and other factors that help digestion and absorption of nutrients.

Due to the fact that Nigeria has one of the lowest exclusive breastfeeding rates in the African Continent till date breastfeeding awareness information has been ongoing and it is not only for the women in the universal present campaign initiative, everyone is involved in the timing, place and strategies for passing the right information to the in the best ways that would be appreciated by the mothers, the family and the society.

Communication is an essential part of promoting and supporting exclusive breastfeeding, individuals and communities connect across small and great distances at an instant notice through communication. According to Brownlee, (199), “New lines of communication are being created everyday and we have the ability to use these information channels to broaden our horizons and can spread exclusive breastfeeding beyond our immediate time and place the reason, range ignorance to traditional beliefs, one of which has to do with water, whereby water are used as breast milk supplement.

Scientific evidence shows that the child’s immune system is not fully developed to fight infections which emanate from giving water or other fluids. If we must improve our breastfeeding practices and increase our exclusive breastfeeding rate, then we must tackle the issue of using water as breast milk supplement and focus on engaging and mobilizing young methods and deal with communication at various levels and between various sectors. Breastfeeding practices including initiation and duration are influenced by multiple interwoven factors which include health, psycho-social, cultural, political and economic factors.

Among these factors, decisions regarding initiation and duration of breastfeeding in low-income countries are influenced by education, empowerment, place of delivery, family pressure, environmental residence and cultural values in Nigeria. The early introduction of complementary feeding base on erroneous assumptions affects breastfeeding initiation and sustainability. Among the Yoruba people, a common belief about exclusive breastfeeding is that it is beneficial to both mother and infants but complementary feeding is essential for babies to adopt bit with ease. Exclusive breastfeeding helps the mother to accelerate recovery of pre-pregnancy weight and also have less than 2 percept risk of becoming pregnant in the first 6 months of postpartum.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

The search for effective means of achieving optimal breastfeeding between the governments, different health organizations and the women is a continuous and sustained one. And as the day goes by, most infants are faced with fresh challenges regarding to the absence of breastfeeding at birth time.

The country is viewed critically, has one of the poorest breastfeeding rates in Africa whereby 13 percent are exclusively breastfed for complete 6 months, resulting to infant mortality and many protected by bringing to their knowledge the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding. Since breastfeeding reduces the mothers risk of fatal post partum hemorrhage and premonopausal breast and ovarian cancer.

However, health communication through advocacy and dialogue strategy is seen as one of the best way of passing the right information that would be acknowledged by mothers, the family and the society. This study is therefore focused on exploring functional communication patterns that can be used as an active strategy for effective breastfeeding practice in Nigeria. Against this background, the study is also out to know whether advocacy and dialogue communication could help in creating favourable awareness about breastfeeding practice in young mothers.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

  1. To identify other facts, that elicit exclusive breastfeeding acceptance.
  2. To find out the medium through which women get most frequent information on breastfeeding.
  3. To inform the women about the benefit of exclusive breastfeeding.
  4. To find out through empirical means the level of awareness on the issue of breastfeeding among women.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What factors are responsible for the audience of exclusive breastfeeding?
  2. Which medium do you get information about exclusive breastfeeding?
  3. Which information have you gotten about exclusive breastfeeding?
  4. How aware or informed are you on the exclusive breastfeeding practice?

1.5 Scope Of The Study

The interest of this study lies on young women in Owerri North L.G.A. The story picks Owerri North L.G.A in Imo state as the area where the research will be carried out. The aim is to bring out findings that will be relevant to all young women in the locality and Nigeria at large, over the acceptance of exclusive breastfeeding practice to their infant child.

1.6 Limitations Of The Study

Various problems was encountered in this study, the researcher was faced with limited time which affected the duration the work and finding were done. Educational challenges, a due to the level of illiteracy among the women, the researcher founds it difficult to interact and pass across the information he had for them. Religious belief is also one of the major problem the researcher encounter, the mothers found it difficult to accept the information being passed across especially when the issue of not giving water or any kind of fluid was raised.

1.7 Significance Of The Study

Almighty students research abounds in this area, this work will serve as an addition to existing literature on this topic. It would also document on the medium of communication of exclusive breastfeeding programmes in the local government which would help the various communication agents such as community leaders or private bodies to appreciate their efforts and peculiarities more.

The study would also be help in promoting and improving exclusive breastfeeding practice and increase breastfeeding rate by talking the issues of giving infant water and other fluids. This project would also provide retrospect to young women in Owerri North L.G.A and Nigeria women at large on the benefits derivable in exclusive breastfeeding on child development impact on neonatal and infant survival and health impact on child nutrition.

It is hoped that the end of this exercise, it will be handy enough to make further academic interest on the subject matter and closer analysis of specialized areas like films and others maybe provoked so that it would inspire further breastfeeding.

Finally, the study intends to ass to existing scarce literature in the area of interpersonal communication and breastfeeding.

1.8 Definition Of Terms


Exclusive Breastfeeding:

Exclusive breastfeeding means that the infant receives only breast milk. No other liquid or solids are given not even water with the exception of oral dehydration solution, or drops/syrups of vitamins, minerals and medicines in the first 6months of birth.


Advocacy is an adaptive process of gathering, organizing and formulating of ideas to influence policy and decision makers to fight for changes. Also advocacy can be defined as a research that is carried out with the intention of providing evidence and argument that can be used to support a particular cause or position.


Dialogue is a focused and intentional conversation, a space of civility and equality in which those who differ may listen and speak together. It is also a way of being mindful and creative relating. In dialogue, we seek to set aside fears, preconceptions, the need to win; we take time to hear other voices and possibilities. It can encompass tension and paradoxes, and in so doing, new ideas collective wisdom may arise.


This is the imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing or using some other medium. It can also be said or defined as the activity of conveying information through the exchange of ideas, feeling, intentions, attitudes, expectations, perceptions or commands.


Exclusive Breastfeeding:

This means giving the baby no other food or drink except breast milk for the first six (6) months of birth. Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS), drops and syrups (vitamins, medicines and minerals) can be given to the child during the first six months.


Advocacy is an adaptive process of gathering, organizing and formulating of ideas to influence policy and decision makers to fight for social change.


Dialogue is a way of being mindful and creative relating. Dialogue seeks to set aside fears, preconceptions,. The need to win; it takes time to hear others voices and possibilities. It can encompass tension and paradoxes and in so doing, new ideas – collective wisdom may arise.


Communication is the reciprocal, mutual, honest and effective transmission of feelings, thoughts and ideas between two or more parties.

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How to nail it on the head during your project / seminar defence

You are through with writing that project / seminar. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic

Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.

Structure of a Seminar Paper

I feel like there is a lot of stress out there among grad students about writing seminar papers, especially when we’re told that our goal should be to make an original contribution to the field. That idea can be quite intimidating when we’re just starting out. It feels like you’ve asked us to jump off the deep end of the pool and we don’t know how to swim.

I think part of the problem is that we’re still working out how to structure seminar papers.** Each paper we write is another step closer to a successful, effective, and effective paper; however, we’re still flailing our arms (and other miscellaneous body parts) around because we’re uncertain of exactly how to go about it. I realize, of course, that there is no one right answer. However, below is my suggestion at sticking your toes in the water.

Section #1 — Introduction

Provide a little bit (or a lot) of motivation for the reader to read your entire paper. Failing that, your reader should know what the paper is going to be about by reading your introduction.

Paragraph #1 — Get some attention.

  1. Provide a context by citing a recent text in the field — the point that is cited may or may not be the main point of the text — it is what jumped out at you.
  2. Set-up broader context of what you’re going to do

Paragraph #2-?? — Define issue and the gap.

  1. Define issue and any key terms
  2. Limit scope as necessary
  3. Establish significance of issue
  4. State problem by defining the gap
  5. Explain how present research attempts to fill the gap
  6. Outline contributions (readers will see lit review for more detail.)
  7. End with thesis and preview organization of the rest of the paper

Section #2 — Literature Review

Give some credit where credit is due.

  1. Indicate the current state of the issue/problem/topic
  2. Define or qualify terms
  3. Engage sources in conversation with each other (don’t just copy in annotated bib)

Section #3 — Argument / Discussion

As stated in the Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing:wallow in those complexities!!

  1. Examine issue
  2. Argue how issue can be mitigated, mediated, or mashed
  3. Provide evidence and support
  4. Make some lively commentary along the way

Section #4 — Conclusion

We’re almost done. Don’t quit now.

  1. Summarize research question
  2. Qualify argument/discussion if you need to
  3. Explain where we go now
  4. End well

Section #5 — Works Cited

Double check

Is everything listed on the works cited?

Tips: it’s ok to use sub-headings to keep yourself organized.

Tips On How To Know What Your Supervisor Is Looking Out For In Your Project

Apparently all schools/colleges ask their undergraduates especially the final students to write their final year project before they are certified to be graduates. These projects are mostly discovery activities geared towards problems solving or basically to make new discoveries or better still have a better understanding of a problem with the aim of proffering better solutions.

With this assigned task an undergraduate will need an advisor, a counselor or a supervisor to guide and direct this activity for a desired result and a successful ending and of course, in return the supervisor have factors to look out for in a student project, so that the aim of the project writing will not be defeated.

As a final year student planning to write your final year project, there are some factors you need to consider when trying to have a good working relationship with your supervisor and you must have the below tips at your fingertips to know what your supervisor look at for in your project.

Selecting the right topic or title:

The supervisor would want to know how knowledgeable one is, in a chosen topic and how far one can go with the topic by asking one diverse questions which could be simple or a bit tough. So one thing is to choose a right topic and another thing is to be knowledgeable about the said topic.

The relevancy of the project topic to the degree course:

This is one of the important things a supervisor looks out for in a project. A final year project must have a purpose and objectives and most importantly be problem solving and must be related to the course of study. So a project topic should be relevant and interesting.

The realistic plan for the project:

A project supervisor will always look at how realistic a project topic is. Will the project aims be achieved and at the specified time. If it will outlived the specified time such topic might be dropped and a new topic adopted to run the set time and fulfill its purpose.

Quality of research materials available:

Another factor a supervisor will consider in project writing by a student is the quality of the materials available for research on the chosen project topic, can materials and information be readily available and are those materials of high standard and convincing not just bogus and fictitious analysis but materials that research has be carried out by scholars related to course of study. So a source of materials used for a project is very important and most supervisors look out for this.

The funding channels:

Almost all project writing needs a good amount of funding to achieved the desired aim, A supervisor would always want to find out how the project will be funded, so as not to have hitches when the project is on. So to have a smooth working relationship with ones project supervisor, the funding of the project must be considered and revisited from time to time. Because a supervisor will look out for this aspect too.


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