Knowledge And Attitude Of Female Bankers Toward The Practice Of Exclusive Breastfeeding

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Knowledge And Attitude Of Female Bankers Toward The Practice Of Exclusive Breastfeeding


Abstract


This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of female bankers toward the practice of exclusive breast feeding in Ikpoba Okha local government area in Benin City, Edo state. The background of the study gave a general and comprehensive introduction of the study, statement of the problem were identified. The significance of the study was outlined and operational definition of terms was included for proper understanding, scope of study was also drawn out current related literature were reviewed and theoretical framework that, is relevant lo the study that is discussed. Questionnaires with open and closed ended questions were administered to 115 respondents and all were retrieved and a total of 100 that were properly filled were analysed.

Date was analyzed using frequency table, percentages pie chart and bar charts. The discussion of result and interpretation of findings were made. The results from the findings in figure IV shows that 95 (95%) of the respondents have good knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding while in figure IX only 15(15%) practices exclusive Breastfeeding. From the above, it was observed that the respondents have good knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding had no influence on their poor attitude towards the practice of Exclusive Breastfeeding. Other factors such as early resumption to duty and late closing hour as seen in figure VII, XIX 98 (98%) and also lack of support from colleagues in figure XIX 96 (96%) are other hindrances to the effective practice of Exclusive Breastfeeding.

The findings result revealed that female bankers have good knowledge about Exclusive Breastfeeding while their attitude towards the practice of Exclusive Breastfeeding is very poor. Recommendations and suggestion for further study were made.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of Study

Breastfeeding is considered the most complete nutritional source for infants, because, breast milk contains the essential fats, carbohydrates, proteins and immunological factors needed for infants to thrive and resist infection in the formative year.

Cardwell and Barry, 2004, jones et al, 2003 in their analysis of child survival strategies, identified exclusive breastfeeding from b to u months as the single most effective preventive intervention in reducing child mortality with the potential of saving 1.3 million infants uses annually.

Similary, leoan-cava et al (2003), have observed that improved breast feeding practices are crucial for child growth and development. However, advocate of breast feeding have noticed that there have been steady decline due to the behaviour of female bankers. This is particularly more pronounced in developing countries, like Nigeria.

Wagner et al, (2005) have also observed that despite all the recommendations by experts as regard infants breast feeding for the first size months of life, a significant percentage of mothers choose not to breastfeed. Work and family conflict are the major concern to many, if not all, the most female bankers over the world. Most of the banking institution continue to spend resources in an attempt to help their staffs manage family duties and responsibilities at work place; however, work and family boundary (exclusive breastfeeding) have been the most challenging factor associated with female bankers in ikpoba hill, Benin city (cooner 2002)

Some may be due to work factor like female bankers who spend more time in the office.

Results of studies conducted in developing countries has shown that, nutritional deficiency and growth retardation is a common occurrence amongst children between the age of 3 and 15 months old, owing to sub optional breastfeeding and poor complementary feeding practices (shrimptonetal 2001)

Parts of the efforts to promote inproved breastfeeding practices focused on hospital norms and services, legislations and institutional polices, health workers training, mass media campains, peer counselling and educating, mother to mother support and a combination of these strategies (Green,1999, till et al, 2004) (Quinn et, al, 2005). Specifically, the United States agency for international development (USAID) in 1996, issues a grant to the academy for international development to design and implement a 10-years program, known as the LINKAGES project, to improve breastfeeding practices rapidly and at scare. Unluckily this has not yielded and encouraging result. This is because in African countries, the national rate for early initiation of breastfeeding were low, with Ghana having the lowest rate (35%) following by Madagascar (34%)Quin et al, 2005) as it has been ensured that safety, optimum growth, health survival of the human infants; that duration of the breast feeding may also determine the strength of mother/child born and attachment, yet exclusive breast feeding is not being in full practices among female bankers because of the long time they spend in the office, and non-provision of curech by their management because of the risky environment where they work.

Breastfeeding decline significantly from 1900 to 1960 due to increasing negative attitude towards the practice and the development of infant formulas under modern health centres, human breast milks considered the healthiest form for milk for babies because of its numerous advantages over artificial formulas (National health services 2007).

Although breast feeding is natural, the current instant feeding practice are far from optimum because of lack of updated knowledge and training among medical and Para medical personnel, misconception in the community, misformation by infant food manufacturers and return to work, illness, breast engorgement and mastitis havelead to exposure of infants to infections like gastoententis and diorrhea which have resulted over a million death annually worldwide (Ghai, 2008).

Due to the above reason, baby friendly hospital initiative (BFHI) was launched in 199 as part of the “innocent declaration of 1991 our promotion, protection and support of breast feeding by WHO and UNICFE. Baby friendly hospital are conform to its ten steps for successful implementation of breastfeeding in the context of HIV, emergencies as well as expansion towards other type of health facilities and the community to discourage the use of breast milk substitute that and water within the first six months of infant life (WHO,2012). This has shown that excusive breast feeding is beneficial to babies, mothers, and even the community at large. However, it is a very challenging task to engage in especially for bankers

This project intends to find out the roles and practices of exclusive breast feeding among female bankers in Ikpoba Okha L.G.A in Benin City Edo state who practices exclusive breast feeding.

At the end of this study recommendation will be made for the management of banks to provide a conducive environment for the nursing mothers to keep their babies and also reduce the working hours for them to be able to exclusively breastfeed.


1.2 Statement Of Problem

Despite the effort and strategies that have been put in a place by WHO and UNICEF to increase awareness of exclusive breastfeeding through baby friendly hospitals initiatives in order to reduce complication associated with artificial feeding like respiratory and gastro intestinal infections. It has been observed by the researchers are still reluctant to practice exclusive breastfeeding due to work factor and environment.

Hence, the question “what is the knowledge and attitude of female bankers towards the attitude of exclusive breast feeding in IkpobaOkha L.G.A Benin city


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

  1. To assess the level of knowledge and the practice of exclusive breast feeding among female bankers.
  2. To ascertain the attitude of female bankers towards the exclusive breastfeeding.
  3. To find out the factors influencing the practice of exclusive breast feeding among female bankers.
  4. To ascertain the measures of improving exclusive breast feeding to banking industry.

1.4 Significance Of Study

  1. It will generate dats concerning the breast feeding among female bankers
  2. Promote the wellbeing of the children of female bankers.
  3. To increase the knowledge of female bankers towards the awareness of the benefits of exclusives breast feeding and suggest ways to overcome these challenges to successful practice of exclusive breast feeding.
  4. To ascertain the attitude of female bankers towards breast feeding.

1.5 Research Question

  1. What is the level of knowledge of female bankers towards exclusive breast feeding
  2. What type of attitude is developed by female bankers towards the practice of exclusive breast feeding
  3. What are the factors influencing the effective practice of exclusive breast feeding among female bankers
  4. What are the benefits of exclusive breast feeding among female bankers

1.6 Scope Of Study

Scope of study is limited to female bankers that are of child bearing age in IkpobaOkha local government area of Edo state Nigeria.

It headquarters are in town of Idogbo. It has an area of 862km2 and a population of 371,106 at the 2006 census. The postal code of the area is 300.

There are about 6 Zenith bank branches in Ikpoba Okha L.G.A it has about 300Number of female bankers, 208 female bankers from four branches in Ikpoba Okha L.G.A Edo state.


1.7 Limitation Of Study

  1. Time factor the entire program is time consuming and the project has to be with in time frame.
  2. Lack of sufficient capital because of the economic situation of the country

1.8 Operational Definition Of Terms

Knowledge:

Clear perception fact or understanding about exclusive breastfeeding.

Attitude:

Position as indicating action, feeling or mood towards exclusive breastfeeding

Practice:

The way of carrying out or doing exclusive breast feeding.

Exclusive breastfeeding:

Feeding of a baby with breast milk only for the first time months of life.

Breast:

Mammary gland that secrets milk after giving birth

Artificial milk:

Milk synthesized from plant or animals used to feed a baby.

Complementary feeding:

Artificial milk given to augment breast milk after 6 months of exclusive feeding.

BFH:

Baby friendly hospital initiative

SIDs:

Sudden infant death syndrome.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Summary of Key Findings

The study discusses essentially, the knowledge attitude and practice of exclusive breastfeeding among women among female bankers in Edo state. The objectives of the study were to find out women‘s knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding, examine the attitude of women towards exclusive breastfeeding among female bankers in Edo state, identify the behaviour of women towards exclusive breastfeeding in the study area and analyse factors influencing the practice and non-practice of exclusive breastfeeding among women in the study area.

The findings showed that most (38%) of the respondents were within the age bracket of 21-30 years, findings also revealed that respondents who were between the ages of 21-30 practiced mixed feeding more than other age groups.

Furthermore, majority (52%) of the respondents are Christians, most of the respondents have (53%) have attained tertiary education and majority (31%) are public servants. Findings also reveal that majority (33%) of the respondents earn below 18,000 naira monthly, most (40%) of the respondents are from other tribes, majority (84%) are married women, and (40%) are experienced mothers.

Findings on knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding show that majority (95%) of respondents were aware of exclusive breast feeding, majority(85%) received their education in a hospital, majority (51%) believe that breastfeeding should be initiated within one hour of birth, most (81%) of the respondents believe it is recommended for 0- 6months and majority (61%) of the respondents believe it is beneficial to both the mother and child. Further findings revealed that respondent‘s knowledge of benefits of exclusive breastfeeding. Result shows that majority (93%) agreed that breastfeeding increases mother and infant bonding, 92% of the respondents agreed that exclusive breastfeeding increases stronger immune system. Also, majority (93%) agreed that exclusively breastfed infants have reduced risk of infectious diseases and majority (66%) agreed that exclusively breastfed infants have reduced rates of diseases.

Findings also reveal that majority, agreed that mothers who breastfeed exclusively have reduced risk of breast and ovarian cancer with83% and 85% respectively. Analysis on higher cognitive development capacity of exclusively breastfed infant shows that majority 75% of the respondents agreed that exclusively breast-fed infants have higher cognitive development and intellectual capacity than their formula fed peers, 83% agreed that exclusive breastfeeding increases intellectual capacity and 81%believe that exclusive breastfeeding reduces health care cost.

Findings on attitude of exclusive breastfeeding show that majority (74%) of the respondents have favourable attitude, hence disagreed that formula feeding is more convenient than breastfeeding, while (26%) had unfavourable attitude. Also, majority (52%) of respondents have a favourable attitude. They do not believe it is embarrassing to breastfeed in public places, while (48%) have an unfavourable attitude. Findings also reveal that (50%) agreed that the recommended duration for exclusive breastfeeding is too lengthy. Most (81%) of the respondents have a favourable attitude, as they agreed that an infant can survive on breast milk only till six months of age, majority (68%) have a favourable attitude as they disagreed that exclusive breastfeeding reduces sexual desire and satisfaction, while (32%) have unfavourable attitude. In addition, most of the respondents believe that exclusively breastfed infants have more intellectual capacity and increased growth rate than their formula fed peers and, therefore, have a favourable attitude, with (66%) and (60%) while only (34%) and (40%) have an unfavourable attitude.Majority 78% of the respondents do not believe an infant need locally made herbs to survive, hence have a favourable attitude.

Findings on breastfeeding practices of respondent shows that majority, (46%) practiced mixed feeding, (44%) constituting the majority did not introduce liquids before breastfeeding initiation. For those who introduce other fluids before breastfeeding initiation, majority (26%) did so as result of delayed milk supply. Findings also revealed that majority 28% introduced other fluids at the third month and most (51%) of them introduced other fluids at the time they did because they were busy with employment or school. Furthermore, majority (51%) of the respondents breast fed or intend to breastfeed for more than 1 year, majority (42%) of the respondents are influenced by health care professionals on choice of infant feeding and majority(57%) said that they have had problems in breastfeeding among those who had experienced breastfeeding problem, majority (37%) experienced nipple pain.

Findings on the factors influencing the practice and non-practice of exclusive breastfeeding show that that majority (70%) of the respondents agreed that lack of support from spouse and relatives discourages the practice of exclusive breastfeeding. Majority(80%) of the respondents agreed that employment hinders the practice of exclusive breastfeeding. Also,71% of the respondents agreed that lack of support from co-workers at work place hinders the practice of exclusive breastfeeding, and majority (80%) agreed that lack of support from management at work place hinders the practice of EBF. The result also revealed that half 50% of the respondents disagreed that socio-cultural belief factors do not affect the practice of exclusive breastfeeding and majority (69%) agreed that cultural practices affect the practice of EBF.

Findings further revealed that majority (71%) agreed that mother‘s perception of insufficiency of breast milk discourages the practice of exclusive breastfeeding and most (66%) agreed that lack of maternal education predisposes mothers not breastfeed exclusively. Results also revealed that majority (85%) agreed that nutritional status of mother influences decision to breastfeed exclusively and majority (53%) agreed that mother/child medical condition can hinder the practice of EBF. Finally, majority (16%) of respondents suggested education for everyone as means of motivating the practice


5.2 Conclusion

Mixed feeding still seems to be more prevalent among female bankers in Edo state.Despite the increased knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding, and the favourable attitude towards it,it consequently reflects in the health of mothers and children. This implies that the knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding does not necessarily translate into practice. Other factors were identified as barriers to the practice.Such factors include:lack of support from spouse and relatives, employment, lack of support from co-workers and management at places of work. Also, findings of the study revealed that social cultural beliefs and practices, lack of maternal education, poor perception about insufficiency of breast milkand poor power supply for the storage of expressed breast milk, hinders the practice of exclusive breastfeeding. Maternal nutritional status, medical condition, and infant‘s medical condition were also identified as possible factors that hinder the practice of exclusive breastfeeding.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the research, the following recommendations are made:

  1. Although, knowledge is no longer a challenge like it was before, the ministry of health and other health organization still need to intensify their efforts in educating women of child bearing age by organizing seminars and symposia specifically addressing the concerns of delayed milk production and breastfeeding difficulties. Mothers should be educated on breastfeeding techniques, how to care for the breast and ways to prevent breast feeding problems such as breast pain and engorgement. They also need to be educated on how to maintain good health and proper diet as they contribute to ensuring a successful practice.
  2. Current public health interventions on exclusive breastfeeding are tailored to the needs of breastfeeding women only. As a result, health organizations and NGO‘s should come up with strategies in educating grandmothers, fathers and traditional birth attendants with the aim at increasing the familiarity of family relations on exclusive breastfeeding, as they play a key role in influencing mothers in infant feeding practices. Husbands should be fully involved throughout the stages of pregnancy and delivery so they can understand what is needed to provide adequate support
  3. Breastfeeding education should be introduced in school curriculum. That way, young people of both sexes can be educated at an earlier stage as they are future parents.
  4. Based on the findings of the study, lack of support from management at the work place has been a barrier to the practice of exclusive breastfeeding. Therefore, the ministry of labour and productivity need to address women‘s right to breastfeed in the workplace by ensuring that employers provide breastfeeding and expressing facilities at the work place, such as crèche facilities to be used by employees who are nursing mothers. Also, employers should consider reduced working hours for breastfeeding employees or extension of maternity leave period. This will give nursing mothers time to breastfeed on demand and that will consequently motivate the practice of exclusive breastfeeding.
  5. Based on the findings of the study, lack of support was identified as one of the major factors that hinder the practice of exclusive breastfeeding. Therefore, government in collaboration with health organizations should come with intervention on behaviour change programmes to support the practice of exclusive breastfeeding.
  6. Government and health professionals need to especially target low-income women when creating and applying interventions. Women with very low income find it difficult to feed themselves let alone breastfeed exclusively. Early cessation was associated with impoverished living conditions, and the government need to tackle the issue of poverty and improve its citizen‘s standard of living.
  7. Government and electricity distribution companies should address the problems of power supply so as to ensure a proper storage of expressed milk.

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