Knowledge Attitude Of Nursing Mothers Towards Immunization

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

Knowledge Attitude Of Nursing Mothers Towards Immunization


Abstract


The study knowledge attitudes of nursing mothers towards immunization aimed at evaluating the to determine the importance of immunization on the well being of nursing mothers, to examine the relationship between immunization and the level of immunity of the nursing mothers, to examine the role of immunization in curbing minor diseases among nursing mothers, to investigate on the factors affecting effective immunization processes in Nigeria. Various literatures and theories were discussed to provide a clear view of the research work.

The study made use of primary data which are gotten from the distribution of the research questionnaires; the sample size for the study is 60. The study made use of the Spearman correlation method for the analysis. The study therefore concluded that there is significant relationship between immunization and the level of immunity of the nursing mothers. The study also made useful recommendation to assist the federal government in decision making.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

The rate of child mortality in Nigeria has increased overtime; immunization practices in Nigeria has significant effect on nursing mothers; this could be as a result of either positive or negative attitude of nursing mothers towards immunization (USAID, 2007).

Child mortality is a challenge in many developing nations. The six child killer diseases identified by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2002) are tuberculosis, whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis and measles. Yellow fever outbreak in Nigeria led to its inclusion in the latest immunization regime.

Immunization coverage against hepatitis B has been increasing since 1990s. More than 160 countries now include hepatitis B in their immunization schedules. These diseases combined with malnutrition, kill an estimated 400-450 Nigerian children per day (Writer, 2008).

As many as four to five times this number of children is handicapped for life by blindness, deafness, lameness and mental retardation Immunization is an inexpensive and increasingly easy to administer strategy which when combined with improved nutrition and sanitation saves children (Lavanchy, 2004).

In most developed nations, immunization programmes have had dramatic success in reducing morbidity and mortality rate significantly. Such programmes have helped in the eradication of diphtheria, measles, neonatal tetanus, pertusis and poliomyelitis since 1993 4 (WHO, 2015).

Immunization has saved over 20 million lives in the last two decades. More than 100 million infants are immunized each year. This saves more than 3 million lives annually. Global mortality attributed to measles decline by 78% from an estimated 733,000 deaths in 2000 to 161,260 deaths in 2008. The prevalence of polio had decline dramatically since 1990. The number of polio cases world wide as of 2009 was 1606 and as of May 2010 it was 115 5.

Immunization is defined as the creation of immunity against a particular disease. It could be the treatment of an organ and/ or making a body immune to subsequent attack by particular pathogens through giving of vaccine. These vaccines protect nursing mothers at risks of acquiring infection by inducing a variety of immune mechanisms. Immunity so acquired can be active or passive.

The economic burden of control of disease in the developing countries by treatment, especially among the vulnerable group such as infant, nursing mothers, is enormous and immunization has been recommended as a cost effective measure for interventions in preventive healthcare. Immunization activities started in Nigeria in 1956 prior to the small pox eradication campaign WHO (2015). The study in this regard wishes to examine the knowledge attitude of nursing mothers towards immunization in Nigeria using ajegunle health center Ikorodu, Lagos State.


1.2 Statement of Research Problem

The impact of immunization on the reduction of childhood morbidity and mortality and the well being of nursing mothers in Nigeria has been remarkable, however, it is yet to reach its full potential despite the objectives of WHO and all efforts by the government as well as health workers in the promotion of National programme on Immunization (NPI) (Abbas et al., 2005). Some communities in Nigeria are still ignorant of the importance, benefit and effectiveness of immunization. It is against this backdrop that this research work accessed the knowledge attitude of nursing mothers towards immunizations in Nigeria


1.3 Aims and Objectives of Study

The main aim of the research work is to examine the knowledge attitude of nursing mothers towards immunization. Other specific objectives of the study include:

  1. To determine the importance of immunization on the well being of nursing mothers in ajegunle health center Ikorodu, Lagos State
  2. To examine the relationship between immunization and the level of immunity of the nursing mothers ajegunle health center
  3. To examine the role of immunization in curbing minor diseases among nursing mothers
  4. To investigate on the factors affecting effective immunization processes in Nigeria
  5. To examine the effect of nursing mother knowledge and exposure on the attitude towards immunization
  6. To proffer solution to the above stated problems

1.4 Research Question

The study came up with research questions so as to be able to ascertain the above stated objectives of the study. The research questions for the study are stated below as follows:

  1. What is the importance of immunization on the well being of nursing mothers in ajegunle health center Ikorodu, Lagos State?
  2. What is the relationship between immunization and the level of immunity of the nursing mothers in ajegunle health center Ikorodu, Lagos State?
  3. What are the roles of immunization in curbing minor diseases among nursing mothers?
  4. What are the factors affecting effective immunization processes in Nigeria?
  5. What is the effect of nursing mother knowledge and exposure on the attitude towards immunization?

1.5 Statement of Research Hypothesis

  • H0: there is no significant relationship between immunization and the level of immunity of the nursing mothers
  • H1: there is significant relationship between immunization and the level of immunity of the nursing mothers

1.6 Significance of Study

The study on the knowledge attitude of nursing mothers towards immunization will be of immense benefit to Nigeria in the following ways:

Nursing Mothers:

The study will teach nursing mothers on the need for immunization before and after birth. The will also disclose to the nursing mothers to functions of immunization and well being of both the nursing mothers and their child

Community:

The study will help in the actualization of nursing mother and child disease free society. This will thus prevent or reduce the rate of infant mortality and promotion of child health

Literature:

The study will added to the theories in the existing literatures and also help other research students that wishes to carry out similar research on the above topic.


1.7 Scope of Study

The study is limited to the knowledge attitude of nursing mothers towards immunization. The study will cover the importance and other health benefit of immunization.


1.8 Limitation of Study

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Immunization:

Is the process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically by the administration of a vaccine

Nursing Mothers:

A mother who is breast-feeding her baby

Infant Mortality:

The death of children under the age of one year.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary Conclusion and Recommendation

The main aim of the research work is to examine the knowledge attitude of nursing mothers towards immunization. Other specific objectives of the study include:

  1. To determine the importance of immunization on the well being of nursing mothers
  2. To examine the relationship between immunization and the level of immunity of the nursing mothers
  3. To examine the role of immunization in curbing minor diseases among nursing mothers
  4. To investigate on the factors affecting effective immunization processes in Nigeria
  5. To proffer solution to the above stated problems

5.1 Summary of Findings

The study made the following findings from the responses received from the respondents that:

  1. There is significant relationship between immunization and the level of immunity of the nursing mothers
  2. Immunization prevents diseases from the nursing mother to her child
  3. Immunization plays a significant role in the reduction of childhood morbidity and mortality
  4. Child mortality is a challenge in many developing nations
  5. Immunization helps to boost the immunity of child and the well being of nursing mothers

5.2 Conclusion

The study concluded that immunization is very important to both the nursing mothers and child; we can see from the result of the data analysis that there is significant relationship between immunization and the level of immunity of the nursing mothers


5.3 Recommendation

The study recommends that:

  1. The federal government of Nigeria should ensure to the availability of vaccines against most of the diseases affecting nursing mothers and infants
  2. There should be a kind of educative programmes for nursing mother especially during pregnancy
  3. The federal government of Nigeria should send agents to interior areas to educate nursing mothers on the need for immunization

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