Knowledge Practice And Outcome Of Immunization Of Under Five Children Among Mothers Attending Antenatal Clinic

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Knowledge Practice And Outcome Of Immunization Of Under Five Children Among Mothers Attending Antenatal Clinic


Abstract


This study was carried out on the knowledge, practice and outcome of immunization of under five children among mothers attending antenatal clinic using Owo, Ondo State as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of mothers attending antenatal clinic in OWO, Ondo state. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 70 respondents and all validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that mothers’ has moderately adequate knowledge about the immunization of under five children. The study also revealed that the factors influencing mothers participation in immunization practice of under five children include; waiting time, educational status, knowledge status, safe means of transportation, and distance to clinic. Furthermore, the study revealed that mothers are satisfied with the outcome of the immunization of under five children. Therefore, it is recommended that ministry of health should be hold more immunization sessions for mothers which have less than five years children as well as social group meetings to exchange information at maternal and child health centers. And ministry of health should provide mothers with vaccination booklets explain the importance of vaccination, importance of vaccination card, routine doses and how to manage the side effects. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Immunization is the process whereby a person is offered protection from or is made resistant to an infectious disease, typically by the administration of a vaccine. Vaccines act by stimulating the body’s immune system to protect the person against subsequent infections or diseases. Immunization is regarded as one of the most successful and cost‑effective public health interventions which averts about 3 million deaths annually and has the potential, if coverage improves, of saving the lives of an additional 1.5 million children annually (Araoye 2014).
As part of the child survival programs, the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) was created in 1974 by the WHO with UNICEF and Rotary International as partners. The EPI was created with the purpose of expanding immunization services beyond smallpox to the following six preventable diseases: diphtheria, measles, pertussis, poliomyelitis, tetanus, and tuberculosis. Immunization can be routine or supplemental (taking the form of immunization campaigns). Routine immunization refers to the nationally scheduled regular administration of vaccine dosages to infants at specified ages. Children are usually taken to the health facility by their parents or caregivers to receive age‑appropriate doses of antigens. In most developing countries, immunization is carried out on specific days of the week to reduce vaccine wastage since the vaccines are supplied in multi‑dose vials to reduce cost. The main aim of routine immunization is to deliver a complete scheduled number of doses of potent vaccines in a timely, safe and effective way to all children and women, ultimately inducing immunity against the targeted diseases (Awosika 2015).

Vaccine‑preventable diseases contribute significantly to under‑five mortality. Maternal and neonatal tetanus, measles, and rubella can be prevented by vaccines, but they continue to afflict children around the world. Measles, a virus that attacks the respiratory tract, is one of the most contagious diseases known. In 2013, as high as about 84% of children around the world were reported as immunized against measles. However, 367 children worldwide die from measles daily despite the availability of a safe, effective, and affordable vaccine.

Nigeria like many other countries in Africa is making efforts to strengthen its health system so as to achieve adequate routine immunization to reduce the burden of VPDs. Factors, such as lack of political will, lack of motivation, poor level of education and awareness and poor infrastructure, have been contributed to the low level of immunization coverage in Nigeria. Other factors associated with poor immunization coverage in resource‑limited countries, as depicted in a multi‑level analysis involving 24 African countries, including high community illiteracy rates, high country fertility rates and living in urban areas. At the individual level, however, the low level of immunization can be linked to the poorest households, uneducated parents, parents with no access to the media and/or with low health‑seeking behaviors. In Nigeria, immunization coverage is still low. Nigeria recorded an abysmal national routine immunization coverage of 12% in 2003 and 36% in 2006 (Awosika 2015). In 2009, Nigeria accounted for about 3.5 million (14%) of the 23.2 million children worldwide who did not receive three doses of diphtheria, tetanus toxoids and pertussis (DPT) vaccine during their 1st year of life. Despite the improvement in global immunization coverage, about 16% of the worlds’ children had not completed the 3‑dose DTP‑3) series by 2013. The estimated 2013 global DTP‑3 coverage among children aged <12 months, which is a key indicator of immunization program performance was 75% in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region and 84% worldwide. In 2013, approximately 6.2 million children under the age of five died worldwide, and 3 million of these deaths occurred in Sub‑Saharan Africa. In 2009, WHO estimated that if global vaccine coverage increased to 90% by 2015, then approximately two million deaths of children under the age of five would be prevented. However, due to the EPI, childhood immunization coverage in the WHO African Region is improving, even if still sub‑optimal in many areas.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Surveying the knowledge and attitudes toward childhood immunizations (KATCI) is an important first step toward understanding the factors that influence vaccine nonacceptance in particular settings (Awosika 2015). Strategies need to be developed to improve vaccine coverage rates aided by the understanding of the relationship between KATCI and actually vaccinating children adequately. This study is aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude, and compliance regarding immunization of under‑five children among mothers at Primary Health Care centers (PHCs) in Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main aim of the study is to examine the knowledge, practice and outcome of immunization of under five children among mothers attending antenatal clinic. Other aims of this study are:

  1. Determine mothers level of knowledge about the immunization of under five children.
  2. Determine the factors influencing mothers participation in immunization practice of under five children.
  3. To determine whether mothers are satisfied with the outcome of the immunization of under five children.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. What is the level of mothers’ knowledge about the immunization of under five children?
  2. What the factors influencing mothers participation in immunization practice of under five children?
  3. Are mothers satisfied with the outcome of the immunization of under five children?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses will validate this study:

  • H01: Mothers attending antenatal clinic do not like the practice of immunization of under five children.
  • H02: Mothers attending antenatal clinic are not satisfied with the outcome of the immunization of under five children.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be significant to the society as the findings of this study will show the importance of immunization to children is, its effects and the perception of mothers towards immunization and as such will know the shortcomings and determine if more actions should be taken.

Additionally, healthcare providers will use it as a literature review. This means that healthcare providers who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review.

Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to mothers’ knowledge and attitude towards immunization.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the knowledge, practice and outcome of immunization of under five children among mothers attending antenatal clinic. This study will be carried out in OWO, Ondo state.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Knowledge:

Awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation.

Mothers:

A mother is the female parent of a child. Mothers are women who inhabit or perform the role of bearing some relation to their children, who may or may not be their biological offspring.

Vaccine:

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins.

Vaccination:

Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine to help the immune system develop immunity from a disease. Vaccines contain a microorganism or virus in a weakened, live or killed state, or proteins or toxins from the organism.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the knowledge, practice and outcome of immunization of under five children among mothers attending antenatal clinic using Owo, Ondo State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the knowledge, practice and outcome of immunization of under five children among mothers attending antenatal clinic using Owo, Ondo State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to determine mothers level of knowledge about the immunization of under five children, determine the factors influencing mothers participation in immunization practice of under five children, and determine whether mothers are satisfied with the outcome of the immunization of under five children.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 70 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are mothers attending antenatal clinic in OWO, Ondo state.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. Mothers’ has moderately adequate knowledge about the immunization of under five children.
  2. The factors influencing mothers participation in immunization practice of under five children include; waiting time, educational status, knowledge status, safe means of transportation, and distance to clinic.
  3. Mothers are satisfied with the outcome of the immunization of under five children.

5.4 Recommendation

The following recommendations were proffered with respect to the findings of the study;

  1. Ministry of Health should be hold more immunization sessions for mothers which have less than five years children as well as social group meetings to exchange information at maternal and child health centers.
  2. Ministry of Health should provide mothers with vaccination booklets explain the importance of vaccination, importance of vaccination card, routine doses and how to manage the side effects.
  3. Mothers knowledge, attitude, and practice of immunization and vaccine-preventable diseases needs to be improved constantly by providing health education and health promotion interventions.
  4. Target should be the entire population, and educational programmes promoting immunization and parental motivation, accessibility, and follow-up should be instituted.
  5. Increase and improvise the awareness classes for mothers and religious leaders on immunisation.

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