Immunization Exercise Management System

Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management BAM

Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management BAM


Chapter One


Introduction

Since the beginning of time, human beings have been concerned about health and disease. Health is valued and cherished by everyone necessary for survival and continued existence of humans and other things. Good health is a necessary condition for happiness, growth, personal development and social advancement. Without good health one look sad and unhappy even with all the good things and pleasure of life.

According to Blackman (2009), immunization, also called vaccination or inoculation is a method of stimulating resistance in the human body to specific diseases using microorganisms—bacteria or viruses—that have been modified or killed. These treated microorganisms do not cause the disease, but rather trigger the body’s immune system to build a defense mechanism that continuously guards against the disease. If a person immunized against a particular disease later comes into contact with the disease-causing agent, the immune system is immediately able to respond defensively.

Immunization has dramatically reduced the incidence of a number of deadly diseases. For example, a worldwide vaccination program resulted in the global eradication of smallpox in 1980, and in most developed countries immunization has essentially eliminated diphtheria, poliomyelitis, and neonatal tetanus. The number of cases of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis in the United States has dropped 95 percent among infants and children since 1988, when the vaccine for that disease was first introduced. In the United States, more than 90 percent of children receive all the recommended vaccinations by their second birthday. About 85 percent of Canadian children are immunized by age two.


1.1 Theoretical Background

In the ancient past, health was regarded as a condition of the body that enables one to cope with his/her environment and drive reasonable satisfaction from ones daily activities, physically, emotionally, mental and social, etc. but the (WHO) says, Health is the state of physical, mental and social well-begin and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity which means that one may be physically fit without disease or infirmity but is socially and emotional unhealthy.

The fundamental determinants of health are our genetic inheritance or biological make up, nutrition, social and physical environment, personal lifestyle and utilization of health care services. Since health is our most precious belonging and a blessing that money cannot buy: Llewellyn – Jones, D. (1980) a nutritional guide for life, New York. Therefore any deviation in health from the physical, mental, social status is a disease.

Disease is regarded as an abnormal condition, disturbance, malfunctioning, any pathologic condition of the body and mind and is manifested in the form of functional or organic disorder, mental ailment, injection or degenerative impairment of the body. The threat and challenge of disease have been of concern to human beings throughout history. Immunization is one effective way of combating diseases in the body.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Immunization management has been faced with several problems, there is no effective way of capturing and recording immunization information. The manual process is time consuming also. This makes the presentation of reports to be very difficult. Much paper work is utilized and this makes it even more tedious to gather and assess immunization records. It is in view of these challenges that this study is carried out.


1.3 Aim / Objectives Of The Study

The aim of the study is to develop immunization exercise management system. The following are the objectives of the study;

  1. To develop a workable immunization exercise management system
  2. To identify the characteristics of diseases suitable for control by vaccine and immunization
  3. To examine the Medical Management of immunization Reactions in Children and Teens

1.4 Significance Of The Study

Generally, significance of computer cannot be over emphasized. A lot of questions pert, aiming to computation of result has been answered by the working principle of the research. Nurses in the research will help the nurses in proper management of data and information speed, accuracy and reduction of stack of files is feasible in addition to these reference making it very feasible based on captions headings and arrangement. It is not time consuming and too expensive.


1.5 Scope Of The Study

The study was limited to Essien Udim Local Government Area.

And the result was limited to the extend of the responses and co-operation of the numbers of the statistic office.


1.6 Organization Research

This project is grouped in to five chapters, chapter one gives a general introduction (overview) of the research. Some basic concepts in this chapter give the general knowledge and understanding of the topic. Chapter two reviews related literature on the subject, it gives general overviews of Diseases types and effect of diseases on child development. The immunization is reviewed to discover the level of children that benefited in order to discovered those are that affected by these diseases. Chapter three the system design, it emphasizes on design and flowcharting it directs on development of new information system that will help Health worker and care givers to achieve objectives and improve it performance in immunization records. Chapter four is the system implementation which give the direction of system flow, and analysis of modules giving specification of different options. Chapter five summarizes, concludes the achievements and recommend


1.7 Definition Of Terms / Concepts

Immunization:

Is a process of administering special medicine in to a person’s body.

It is meant to make the person’s body resistance to disease stronger so that he or she will not become sick or die from the disease.

Vaccinator:

Is a person who vaccinates the children?

Management:

The act of handling or controlling something successfully

Disease control:

Disease control is defined as a reduction of disease incidence, prevalence, morbidity, or mortality to a locally acceptable level achieved through deliberate efforts. Ongoing disease surveillance and program intervention efforts are usually required to document and maintain that level of control.

Disease elimination:

Disease elimination is a more specific degree of disease control defined as the reduction zero of incidence or occurrence of a specific disease within a defined geographic area as a result of deliberate programmatic efforts. As with disease control, maintaining disease elimination in a defined geographic area requires ongoing public health efforts.

Disease eradication:

Disease eradication has been defined as the reduction to zero of the world wide incidence or occrence of a specific disease as a result of deliberate programmatic efforts. To date, only two infectious diseases, smallpox and rinderpest have been eradicated successfully, both through strategic use of vaccines.


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