The Importance Of Immunization In Children 0-5 Years In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Gboko LGA Benue State)

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The Importance Of Immunization In Children 0-5 Years In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Gboko LGA Benue State)


Abstract


This study was carried out on the importance of immunization in children 0-5 years in Nigeria using Gboko LGA Benue State as a case study. The study was specifically set to ascertain whether immunization uptake reduces children’s 0-5 years venerability to infectious diseases in Gboko LGA Benue State, ascertain whether immunization uptake reduces child mortality in Gboko LGA Benue State, and ascertain factors challenging immunization coverage. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of healthcare workers in Gboko LGA Benue State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 65 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant need for the immunization of children 0-5years in Gboko LGA Benue State. Furthermore the result of the findings reveals that the factors affecting immunization coverage and effectiveness include; maternal knowledge, maternal outcome expectation, maternal attitude, maternal self-efficacy and environmental factors. Therefore, it is recommended that more rural health facilities are required in rural communities especially the very hard to reach areas, equipped with solar powered refrigerators to help preserve vaccines which must be kept at a particular temperature. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Vaccination prevents and controls serious communicable illnesses. Vaccine is effective and efficient intervention, and one of well-established strategies accessible to hard-to-reach remote and vulnerable populations (Gentile et al., 2010). Infectious diseases prevented by vaccines are still significant contributors to illnesses and deaths in many underdeveloped countries around the world. These diseases contribute to 15% deaths in under 5 children, remain the leading factors that contribute to deaths in children, killing about 3m children annually, mostly in Africa and Asia(Close, Pearson, & Cohn, 2016). According to a research by WHO and UNICEF, vaccine preventable deaths accounted for nearly 29 percent of mortality in 1-59 months old children (Kaoje et al., 2017). Pertussis was reported in 24.1 million children, and Africa contributed for 33.3% of the cases (Plans-Rubió, 2021).

The Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) which was established in 1974 through a World Health Assembly resolution (resolution WHA27.57) has the mandate to ensure that all children around the globe are immunized with life-saving vaccines following the success of the global smallpox eradication programme5 . The first diseases targeted by the EPI were diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, measles, poliomyelitis and tuberculosis.

Immunization is the process whereby a person is offered protection from or is made resistant to an infectious disease, typically by the administration of a vaccine. Vaccines act by stimulating the body’s immune system to protect the person against subsequent infections or diseases. Immunization is regarded as one of the most successful and cost‑effective public health interventions which averts about 3 million deaths annually and has the potential, if coverage improves, of saving the lives of an additional 1.5 million children annually (Araoye 2014).

Immunization can be routine or supplemental (taking the form of immunization campaigns). Routine immunization refers to the nationally scheduled regular administration of vaccine dosages to infants at specified ages. Children are usually taken to the health facility by their parents or caregivers to receive age‑appropriate doses of antigens. In most developing countries, immunization is carried out on specific days of the week to reduce vaccine wastage since the vaccines are supplied in multi‑dose vials to reduce cost. The main aim of routine immunization is to deliver a complete scheduled number of doses of potent vaccines in a timely, safe and effective way to all children and women, ultimately inducing immunity against the targeted diseases (Awosika 2015). In view of the aforementioned, this study seek to examine the importance of immunization in children 0-5 years in Nigeria using Gboko LGA Benue State as a case study.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Immunization of children against childhood preventable diseases has remained one of the most important cost effective and public health strategies to reduce childhood preventable morbidity and mortalities arising from infectious diseases. Nigeria like many other countries in Africa is making efforts to strengthen its health system so as to achieve adequate routine immunization to reduce the burden of VPDs. Factors, such as lack of political will, lack of motivation, poor level of education and awareness and poor infrastructure, have been contributed to the low level of immunization coverage in Nigeria. Other factors associated with poor immunization coverage in resource‑limited countries, as depicted in a multi‑level analysis involving 24 African countries, including high community illiteracy rates, high country fertility rates and living in urban areas. At the individual level, however, the low level of immunization can be linked to the poorest households, uneducated parents, parents with no access to the media and/or with low health‑seeking behaviors.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

Generally, this study aims to assess the importance of immunization in children 0-5 years in Nigeria using Gboko LGA Benue State as a case study.

Specifically, this study will;

  1. Ascertain whether immunization uptake reduces children’s 0-5 years venerability to infectious diseases in Gboko LGA Benue State.
  2. Ascertain whether immunization uptake reduces child mortality in Gboko LGA Benue State.
  3. Ascertain factors challenging immunization coverage in Gboko LGA Benue State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. Does immunization uptake reduce children’s 0-5 years venerability to infectious diseases in Gboko LGA Benue State?
  2. Does immunization uptake reduce child mortality in Gboko LGA Benue State?
  3. What are the factors challenging immunization coverage in Gboko LGA Benue State?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses will validate this study:

  • Ho: There is no significant need for the immunization of children 0-5years in Gboko LGA Benue State.
  • Ha: There is a significant need for the immunization of children 0-5years in Gboko LGA Benue State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be significant to the society as the findings of this study will show the importance of immunization to children is, its effects and the perception of mothers towards immunization and as such will know the shortcomings and determine if more actions should be taken.

Additionally, healthcare providers will use it as a literature review. This means that healthcare providers who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review.

Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the importance of immunization in children 0-5 years in Nigeria.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The broad objective of this study borders on evaluation of the importance of immunization in children 0-5 years in Nigeria. Geographically, this study will be carried out in Gboko LGA Benue State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study. In this study we did not take into consideration the validity of vaccines as at when they were taken • Our data were collected on the premises of routine immunization, as such the study did not consider the immunization given during Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIA) • The study design is cross-sectional, so causal effect could not be established.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Knowledge:

Awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation.

Vaccine:

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins.

Vaccination:

Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine to help the immune system develop immunity from a disease. Vaccines contain a microorganism or virus in a weakened, live or killed state, or proteins or toxins from the organism.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the importance of immunization in children 0-5 years in Nigeria using Gboko LGA Benue State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the evaluation of the importance of immunization in children 0-5 years in Nigeria using Gboko LGA Benue State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain whether immunization uptake reduces children’s 0-5 years venerability to infectious diseases in Gboko LGA Benue State, ascertain whether immunization uptake reduces child mortality in Gboko LGA Benue State, and ascertain factors challenging immunization coverage.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are healthcare workers in Gboko LGA Benue State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. Immunization uptake reduces children’s 0-5 years venerability to infectious diseases in Gboko LGA Benue State.
  2. Immunization uptake reduces child mortality in Gboko LGA Benue State.
  3. The factors challenging immunization coverage in Bida Local government Area are lack of political will and commitment, paucity of funds, poor community participation and vaccine stock-outs.

5.3 Recommendation

With respect to the findings and the aim of this study, the researchers therefore recommend that;

  1. Maternal literacy level should be built up through adult education outreaches, especially in the rural areas.
  2. More rural health facilities are required in rural communities especially the very hard to reach areas, equipped with solar powered refrigerators to help preserve vaccines which must be kept at a particular temperature.
  3. Making more vaccines available at immunization centres especially for the routine immunization programmes.
  4. Increase in advocacies by health workers on the purpose and need for immunizing children against preventable deadly diseases.
  5. These advocacies could be propagated through the mass media, village meetings and religious centres.
  6. Rural health workers posted to rural health centres should be encouraged to live within the jurisdiction of their posting area.
  7. The use of SMS to remind mothers/care givers of immunization schedules especially those who delivered in the health facilities should be exploited.

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