Effect Of Immunization In Children Between The Age Of 0-5 In Family Health Centre

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Effect Of Immunization In Children Between The Age Of 0-5 In Family Health Centre


Abstract


Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective child survival interventions which is practiced throughout the world. All countries in the world have an immunization programme to deliver selected vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries. Especially focusing on infants and children who are at high risk of diseases preventable by vaccines. This project work was carried out to Investigate On The Effect Of Immunization In Children Between The Age Of[0-5years] In Family Health Centre Idah Local Government Area Kogi State. Over one hundred and twenty mothers of children from 0– 5 years of age, health workers in-charge of immunization in family health centers were included in the study. Questionnaires were distributed to mothers and respondents to assess the following parameters Age of the mothers, educational status, socio-economic status, awareness, knowledge of immunization, the impact of immunization on previous siblings. Statistic analysis of data was done using simple percentage, bar chart, pie chart. Finally, the researcher with specific endeavors based on findings as seen in the related chapter suggested ways to encourage women of childbearing age on the effectiveness of immunization..


Chapter One


Introduction

Every year nearly 2million are dying before they reach 5th birthday to low and middle group. Immunization is the most cost effective safest and efficient health investment of saving millions of lives and averting morbidity, mortality and disability by vaccine preventable diseases.
One of the greatest achievements in public health has been infectious disease prevention through immunization; few intervention in this field has help to prevent death of children under [5] five years of age.

Immunization is a process of introducing live attenuated or dead antigen into the body to stimulate the production of antibodies which fight against the specific disease. It was first discovered by a British physician named EWARD JANNER who introduce the method of immunization for the protection against small pox, house inspected material from cowpox to immunize human suffering from small pox his vaccination were the first known application of the principle of active immunization by the use of material containing a weakened or attenuated virus. He is often called the father of vaccinology and his practice in 1796 was sequel to his observation that an attack could confer immunity against small pox. It was about a hundred years later that the smallpox virus was discovered.

Based on the lessons learned from his effort to eradicate smallpox other campaigns have been implement in Nigeria for the eradication of poliomyelitis and measles as a result of steadfast commitment to immunization on the part of the health workers and parent the case of the polio myelitis in Nigeria has reduced drastically to the barest minimum level measles transmission has been slowed and there is also a strong commitment to measles control in Nigeria.

Immunization remains the most effective fool in reducing children morbidity and mortality occurring from vaccine preventable disease [V P D S] such as tuberculosis, polo myelitis, diphtheria whooping cough, tetanus, Neonatal tetanus, measles yellow fever, hepatitis B and cerebrospinal meningitis


Purpose of Study

This is to ensure that children under 5 years of age are fully immunized and to avoid the immunizable disease thereby reducing mobility and mortality rate so as to improve good health and increase productivity among woman of children bearing age [15-49 years]


Significant of Study

  1. To reduce morbidity and mortality rate of children under 5 years old in Idah LG A
  2. To increase productivity and good health of woman of child bearing age.
  3. To reduce child hood killer diseases among children especially those under 5 years in idah and kogi state in general.
  4. To add to the body of knowledge in national programme on immunization especially in family health centre .

Objectives of Study

  1. To provide health education to mother on the effectiveness of immunization for children under 5 years old.
  2. To understand the concept of immunization for children under 5 years of age
  3. To eradicate childhood killer disease in family health centre idah local government area among children under 5 years.
  4. To evaluate and encourage the implementation of the current immunization schedule in [idah] family health centre idah L.G.A Kogi State.

Limitation of Study

This project topic was limited to family health centre idah L G A in Kogi State in children in the age of [0-5 years] because children in the above mentioned age group are prone to the disease which could be prevent by being fully immunized with recommended doses of vaccines with just only 5 visit to the health centre and child will be fully immunized.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The purpose of this research study was to appraise the effectiveness of immunization in children between 0-5 years in Family Healthcare Centre, Idah L.G.A of Kogi State. To achieve this aim, specific objectives were set and corresponding research questions were formulated to guide the research work. Hypothesis were also postulated for verification through the study. The significance of the research work were also highlighted alongside with Justification of the study and definitions of terms.

Following the aforementioned points, relevant literatures on the subject under consideration were painstakingly reviewed to understand the scope and impact of immunization.

The significant predictors of full immunization in this study were maternal education, region, religion, wealth status, distance to health facility, place of delivery, antenatal care use, occupation and mother’s age.

There was a strong positive association between maternal education and full immunization.

Education helps to improve health seeking behaviour of an individual. This finding is consistent with other literatures like Tadesse et al., 2009 and Breiman et al., 2004, that found that maternal education was a significant predictor of completeness of immunization because highly educated mothers will be more aware of the importance of immunization. The role of maternal education as an important cause of immunization uptake has also been shown byMahy, 2003 and Onyiriuka, 2005. In contrast, in study conducted in Libya by Mabrouka and
Bofarraj in 2011, there was no significant relationship between immunization status and mothers’ educational level.

Mothers’ occupation is another factor that influences vaccination uptake. Occupation can influence mothers’ likelihood to seek immunization for their child. This study showed that mothers’ occupation (Professional and managers) was significantly associated with higher likelihood of full immunization than people that are not working. Similar findings have been reported in previous studies (Antai, 2009).

Result also showed that there is evidence that ages of mother predicts child immunization.

This could be because elder mothers know the effect and the importance of immunization on children than young women. This finding is the same with the study conducted in Sudan by Ibnouf et al., 2007 and also in the study conducted in Nigeria by Babalola 2009.

Several studies have found a true relationship between wealth status and vaccination status(INDEPTH NETWORK 2005; Ndiritu et al. 2006; Jamil et al., 1999 and Babalola, 2009).

Children from wealthier households may be more likely to have their vaccination status checked and to receive missing doses of vaccines when attending a health care facility than children from poor households. Also it could be because children who are from poor homes find it difficult to be reached by the health workers and also parents may encounter barriers to reach health facility compared to rich children. In the study conducted by Castro-Leal, 1999 and Pande, 2003, they found no association between wealth status and full child immunization.

In previous studies conducted in other developing countries, distance to primary health carefacilities significantly predicted vaccination status (Muller et al. 1998; Torun & Bakirci2006). An association was found between distance to health facility and full child immunization in this present study. This was the same with the findings in the study conducted in Kenya by Mutua et al., 2011 and in India by Takum et al., 2011 and in Nigeria by Adedayo et al., 2009. This may be because parents may not be willing to walk long distances due to regular absence of health workers or unavailability of vaccine at the health facility. Another explanation could be visibility of health facility may act as a reminder to the parent.

As place of delivery was significant in this study, the same was found in the study conducted

In Niger Delta area of Nigeria by Oyo-Ita et al., 2012. A child that is born in a health facilitywould have more access to immunization than a child born at a non health facility. At birth, a child is given Polio 0 and this makes the parent to be aware of immunization. Similar findings have been reported in previous studies (Luman et al., 2005 and Oladokun et al.2009).


5.2 Conclusion

On the basis of the finding and discussion of the study, the following conclusions were made:

Immunization is effective among the children between O-5years and women of child bearing age in Family Health Care Centre Idah L.G.A of Kogi state.

Conclusively, the women of child bearing age should be given proper health education, sensitization and adequate support from health personnel at the family health care centre. With these steps, the issue of disability, mortality, and morbidity among the children will also be reduced or eradicated in Idah LGA of Kogi State and in Nigeria as a whole.


5.3 Recommendation

With regard to the various findings in this research work, the cold chain system of immunization should be intensified by regular supply of electricity purchase of refrigerator generating plants and availability of cold boxes especially in rural areas.

Another recommendation is mobilization of community members through health education and formation of primary health care (PHC) committee, more so, proper maintaining of NPI equipment and proper monitoring of scheme and evaluation of the result.

Further more, integration of NPI into primary health care by arranging a child survival clinic in such a way for various services including immunization can be offered during a short visit.

To add to, employment of adequate trained personnel and health administration for proper planning and execution of NPI.

Finally, employment of health records professional for proper collection of data services as gold degree of achievement that has •been by any programme thereby effective planning and decision could be made.


5.4 Implication of the Study

The implication of the appraisal of effectiveness of immunization service on the health of children (O-5years) and women of child bearing age is that most mothers do not care about the importance of immunization rather on the effects. At about 57.5 received immunization anytime when the need arises and at about 97 receive it some time. When there is a slight symptom without even considering the effect on the baby and the mother negating affected. The effects include morbidity, mortality and disability (deformation) among others.


5.5 Suggestion for Further Study

It is hereby suggested that similar studies or research should be carried out in various part of Idah metropolis to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of the people on immunization service.

Also, health workers should be encouraged to go into further studies on immunization for more research.


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