Barriers To Uptake Of Immunization

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Barriers To Uptake Of Immunization


Abstract


This study is attempted to provide a general information and knowledge about the barriers to uptake of immunization in Nigeria.From the findings, it was observed that ignorance and inability of mothers to get their child immunized lead to death of children so government area advised to explain the main importance of immunization to mothers in order to increase the rate of immunization. Immunization is one of the most effective and safest ways to prevent disease and early child mortality rates.

The socio-economically disadvantaged populations are among the most vulnerable groups that are under-vaccinated. Uptake of vaccination services is dependent not only on provision of these services but also on other factors including knowledge and attitude of mothers, density of health workers, accessibility to vaccination clinics and availability of safe needles and syringes. This study underlines a need for an effective counselling tailored to the immunization session, which will maintain a positive relationship between the personnel and the mother.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the study

Routine immunization coverage among children in developing countries is below the WHO and UNICEF target of 80% which leads to many children suffering from infectious parasitic and immunizable diseases which are by far the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the developing countries according to Utibeabasi (2018).
The immunization of a new born child is a very important way of preventing illness considering the way common diseases that claimed the life of children. According to Oichl and Datrymple (2009) when more than 50% of a community population are immunized against a disease, the possibility of epidemic is removed.

Supporting this view, Ogbuibe (2005) pointed out that the entry point to be fill introduction of all elements of primary health care system, immunization against diseases in one of the fairly they elements of the child’s survival and development. The national programme of immunization was for certain target groups of the population mainly children within the large group of 0-2 years and pregnant mothers or women. It is target against the six deadly and childhood diseases. These diseases are tuberculosis, measles, poliomyelitis, tetanus, chicken pox and whooping cough. The high rate of mortality from disease preventable by immunization underscores the need for immunization was the most effective programme to reduce these diseases for which satisfactory immunization procedures have been established.

When a disease is peculiar to certain area, health authorities may recommend immunization of all persons in that area particularly those who are likely to be exposed to it. To buttress this view, Anderson (2000) suggested that mass immunization against typhoid fever is not advocated but if an epidemic occurs in a community, health authorities may implore all susceptible persons to be immunized. The success of any immunization programme depends largely on the target population. It is pertinent to note that mothers are the persons in the issues of the children rearing pattern in our society whereby the mothers rather than fathers are the home keepers and know better about their children’s immunization status. Therefore, all children should be protected. All mothers should understand the importance of immunization to ensure this, Sohem (2005) recommended the vaccination of all new born children should be registered at all health clinics for routine immunization. This entails that they should undergo all stages of immunization.

Immunization is the act of protecting someone against a disease by the intake of inoculation of vaccine or other protective agents which stimulate natural body resistance. It could be active or passive. Immunization is the active which involves administering agents which stimulates the receivers’ own immunological mechanism who responds by producing reactions in his resistance to infect by the organisms from which the antigen was derived or obtained. This takes several weeks to produce effective protection hence, it has a prophylactic value but last forever. On the other hand, immunization is said to be passive by the giving of already made anti-bodies formed by another lost in response to natural injection. This has immediate protective and therapeutic value but last for a short period.

The induction of immunity by applying vaccine in children is among the most cost-effective health interventions and awareness creation programs to reduce child mortality, morbidity, and disability in the world (WHO/AFRO, 2009-2012). This is achieved through a routine vaccination schedule for children in Nigeria which are given starting from birth, and are being completed before one year of life by all children as it obtained elsewhere (WHO, 2012). Nigerian government introduced pentavalent vaccine into her immunization schedule recently (2012).

Nigeria like many countries in Africa is making efforts to strengthen its health system especially immunization so as to reduce disease burden from vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). Such efforts include creating awareness of the importance of health education, provision of the vaccines and personnel through the NPHCDA, private or NGO providers’s, community based participation and the media.


1.2 Statement of the problem

The decision to carry out the study was due to the barriers associated with immunization of children among the illiterate mothers in Nigeria. In the past, many children died before the age of 5 or before the school age due to communicable diseases e.g. tuberculosis, diphtheria, poliomyelitis, whooping cough, measles, tetanus etc. they did not know that these disease could be prevented. These communicable disease were discovered by scientific researcher, clinics are established where the disease can be prevented by treatment. Many people are not still making use of the clinic and health center, perhaps due to ignorance, inability of mothers to get the facilities or non availability of vaccine or lack of understanding. Therefore this study is carried out in order to investigate the barriers to uptake of immunization.


1.3 Objectives of the study

Generally, this seminar work is an attempt to study the barriers to uptake of immunization. The specific objectives of this study are to:

  1. Knowledge of the benefits of immunization.
  2. Overview of immunization coverage status in Nigeria.
  3. Challenges of immunization coverage in Nigeria.

1.4 Significance of the study

This research is expected to be of great importance to parents and the general public in Nigeria who will appreciate the implication of the problem of immunization and know the best way to handle them. The study conducted was done to aid the following group of people.

  1. The mothers
  2. The health center
  3. Ministry of health, Edo State.
The Mothers:

The mother will be advice properly on what they should do. The information gathered will be of great importance which may change mother’s attitudes towards immunization programme.

The health center:

The suggestion made will be used as a source of correction measure to health persons on one way or the other may have contributed to the lukewarm attitude of mothers when they bring their children for immunization through health education and lack of follow up visit to trace defaulters.

Ministry of health, Edo State:

The findings may serve as a clue for the Ministry of health to make better plan by making of health to make better plan by making adequate provision of vaccine and training more people into the health sector to promote child immunization in Nigeria.


Chapter Three


Conclusion And Recommendation

3.1 Conclusion

The result of this study has clearly indicated that mothers in Nigeria have improved on taking their children for immunization. This suggests that immunization uptake in the Nigeria has improved compared to previous reports. The challenge however is that most Muslims women, women without education, women that are poor seem not to still take their children for immunization and this affects the percentage of children fully immunized in Nigeria. This is because the majority of people in Nigeria belong to these groups. Concerned authorities should ensure that parents especially Muslim, uneducated and poor parents immunize their children since low coverage will always draw back the efforts of fighting vaccine preventable diseases. This calls for intervention towards helping these categories of mothers in Nigeria to know the advantage of taking their children to clinics for immunization.


3.2 Recommendation

Nigeria Government should improve on Supplemental immunization activities such as National Immunization Days (NIDs) and Catch-up campaigns that are already in place. These programmes should be planned and regularly carried out based on how to improve routine immunization coverage and control out-breaks situations like Measles and Polio.

Nigeria health department should conduct immunization campaign frequently. Such a campaign should be specific communication focused on all the required vaccines.

Government should strengthen antenatal clinic by training more health care workers since this finding shows that children whose mothers attended antenatal clinics were fully immunized.

In addition, government should work with religious leaders especially in the Northern parts of the country so as to improve the uptake of vaccine.
Nigeria Ministry of health should make an effort to sensitize parents about the importance of completing the immunization schedule especially the Muslim parents.

Education programmes that can target poor and uneducated people should be put in place so that they are able to make informed decisions regarding immunization of their children. Free health facilities should be made available to every mother so that poor mothers can easily access them.


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