Halitosis Among Student In Shehu Idris College Of Health Science And Technology

Project and Seminar Material for Dentistry

Halitosis Among Student In Shehu Idris College Of Health Science And Technology


Abstract


Infact, the aim of this study is to create awareness on the Halitosis among students in SICHST Makarfi Local Government Area, Kaduna State. Halitosis or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odor exhaled in breathing. Halitosis is a condition affecting both male and female in all ages, Halitosis can cause by eating of certain foods, like cooked eggs, garlic, onions, smoking and drinking alcohol, which when absorbed into our blood stream, are transferred to the lungs and exhaled breath will be produced as bad breath, suffering from some systemic disease such as liver, kidney, diabetic mellitus, and digestive track infection whereby gases are blocked from passing the stomach or intestines.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Declaration
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problems
  • 1.3 Purpose of the Study
  • 1.4 Significance of the Study
  • 1.5 Research Questions
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study

Chapter Two

Review Of Related Literature

  • 2.1 History
  • 2.2 Causes
  • 2.3 Types
  • 2.4 Sign and Symptoms
  • 2.5 Diagnosis
  • 2.6 Prevention and Control
  • 2.7 Management

Chapter Three

Research Design

  • 3.1 Area of the Study
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
  • 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.5 Validity of the Instrument
  • 3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
  • 3.7 Procedure for Data Collection
  • 3.8 Procedure for Data Analysis

Chapter Four

Data Presentation and Analysis


Chapter Five

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Discussion
  • 5.3 Finding
  • 5.4 Recommendations
  • 5.5 Suggestions
  • 5.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Halitosis or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odor exhaled in breathing (Gage, 2007). Halitosis can be important social problem in which the standard dental treatment and mouth wash that are often recommended provide only temporary relief. The smell is from an oral source due to bacterial activities (Rosemberg, 2002). Oral malodor is primarily the result of microbial metabolism, the mouth is a home of hundreds of bacterial species with various nutritional preferences.

The most common location for mouth related halitosis is the tongue. Tongue bacterial produce malordor and fatty acid and count for about 80 to 90 percent of all cases of mouth related bad breath. Large quantities of naturally occurring bacteria are often found on the dorsum of the tongue, where they are relatively undisturbed by normal activities. This part of the tongue is relatively dry and poorly cleansed and bacterial populations can thrive on remnants of food deposits, dead epithelial cells and post nasal drip.

The convoluted microbial structure of the tongue dorsum provides an ideal habitat for anaerobic bacterial, which flourish under a continually – forming tongue coating of food debris, dead cells, post nasal drip and overlying bacteria living and dead when left on the tongue the anaerobic respiration of such bacterial can yield either the putrescent smell of indole, skatole, methyl mercapton, alloymethyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfide (Tonzentich, 1997). The organism digest protein, and several fatid substance arise leading to bad breath. Oral malodor from the overgrowth of proteolytic, anerobic gram negative bacterial the creavices of the tongue dorsum can be successfully diagnosed and treated (Lochner et al, 2000).

There are several causes of halitosis although the main one is oral bacterial over 90 million people suffer from chronic halitosis which is medical term for bad breath in most cases halitosis originate from the gums and tongue, caused by bacterial from the decay of food particles, other debris in the mouth and poor oral hygiene. In most cases (85-90%) bad breath originate in the mouth itself. The intensity of bad breath differ during the day, due to eating of certain foods such as garlic, onions, meat, fish, egg, cheese, smoking and alcohol consumption, since the mouth is exposed to less oxygen and is in active during the night, the odor is usually worse upon awakening (morning breath). Bad breath may be transient of ten disappearing following brushing teeth, flushing or rinsing with special mouth wash (Tammy Devenport, 2007).

Bad breath may also be persistent (chronic bad breath). Which is a more serious condition affecting some 25 percent of the population in varying degrees. It can negatively affect the individual’s personal, social and business relationship leading to poor self esteem and increased stress. Halitosis is a medical term for bad breath and this is quite serious as a social disorder.

Halitosis can cause extremely embarrassing situation in social interaction and relationship at work and in your personal life as well (Lell et al, 2006). However, some bad breath seem to be associated with local pathological causes such as gingivitis (especially ANUG), periodontal disease, infected extraction sockets, or other types of oral species. In some cases, other possibilities that favour oral malodor are the presence of residual blood post operatively, debris under bridge or appliances, ulcer, dry mouth, and perfection of post nasal mucus drip stagnating on the tongue (Wd Kazor, 2002).

Various methods used to control halitosis (bad breath) the most widely-known reason to clean the tongue is for the control of bad breath. Method used against bad breath, such as mints, mouth sprays and mouth wash, may only temporarily mask the odour created by the bacteria on the tongue but cannot cure bad breath because they don’t remove the source of bad breath, in order to prevent the production of the sulfur – containing compounds mention above the bacteria on the tongue must be removed regularly. Most people who clean their tongue use a (tongue scraper) or a tooth brush (Dent Hes, 2007).


1.2 Statement of the Problems

Eating of certain foods, like cooked eggs, garlic, onion which when absorbed into our blood stream, are transferred to the lungs and exhaled breath will be produced as bad breath. Suffering from some systemic diseases such as liver and kidney, diabetic mellitus, digestive track infection whereby gases are blocked from passing the stomach or intestines. When mouth is dry, saliva production decreases leaving the mouth natural ability to clean itself impaired. Saliva is mouth’s natural mouth wash which contain properties that keep the mouth clean.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

  1. To identify the occurrence of Halitosis among students in SICHST Makarfi.
  2. To find out the causes of Halitosis among students in SICHST Makarfi.
  3. To determine the measures of awareness, prevention and treatment of Halitosis.
  4. To create hope that there is a solution to the problems of Halitosis.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The significance of the study is to find out the occurrence of halitosis among the students in SICHST, Makarfi. This will help to proffer suggestion in understanding the existing oral health problems and develop oral health programs in the College, and assist oral health practitioners to provide a special oral health services such as oral health talk to entire students in SICHST Makarfi, and also help the management of the College to introduce oral health care in every department.


1.5 Research Questions

  1. How common is Halitosis among students in SICHST Markafi?
  2. What are the predisposing factors that lead to Halitosis?
  3. What are the measures of awareness, prevention and treatment of Halitosis among students in SICHST Makarfi?

1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is limited to Halitosis among students in SICHST Makarfi which consist of causes, prevention and treatment


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

This Chapter deals with the following sub Headings;

  • Summary
  • Discussion
  • Finding
  • Recommendation
  • Conclusion
  • References

Summary

The topic of the study is the halitosis among students in SICHST Markarfi local government area. This project work comprises of five (5) chapters

  • Chapter I: this chapter deals with introduction, back ground of the study, purpose of the study, significance of the study, research question and scope of the study.
  • Chapter II: this chapter deals with the literature review under the following sub headings, history, causes, types, signs and systems, diagnosis, prevention and control.
  • Chapter III: this chapter deals with the research design, area of the study, population of the study, instrument for data collection, and also procedure for data analysis.
  • Chapter IV: this chapter deals with the presentation and data analysis.
  • Chapter V: this chapter deals with summary, discussion, finding, recommendation, conclusion and references.

Discussion

The discussion will be based on the research question in chapter I.

The analysis of the data in section A table II shows that 43.2 and 56.7 of male and female students in SICHST Makarfi local government are suffering from halitosis (bad breath) respectively. While the finding of section B in table III indicate that out of the totals number among student in SICHIST Makarfi local government are having halitosis in the coverage.


Finding

  1. To identify the occurrence of halitosis among students in SICHST Makarfi?
  2. To find out the causes of halitosis among students in SICHST Makarfi?
  3. To determine the measures of awareness, prevention and treatment of halitosis?
  4. To create hope that there is a solution to the problems of halitosis?

Recommendations

Having been able to undergo the study of the halitosis, I wish to formally make the following recommendations:

  1. Provost should create awareness on the occurrence of halitosis in order for them to organize special lectures on the occurrence of halitosis
  2. Dental health education programs should also organized for the students attending clinics on the occurrence of halitosis.
  3. Provost should provide free treatment for students with halitosis.

Suggestions

The research found it necessary to suggest that provost should set up other agencies that will work hand in hand with the students to reduce the occurrence of halitosis among students.


Conclusion

Parents should indicate the habit of daily brushing at least twice a day to their children during child hood because this will help to preserve and prevent early tooth loss (decayed tooth) during child hood.

Ignorance about oral hygiene equally contributes to this problem that is why knowledge is the key to health Rosenberg (2007).

Negligence of people towards their mouth has brought damage to their oral health.

Foul odor (halitosis), is a public health problem. Proper care of the mouth which include brushing twice in a day, treatment of all know systemic disease e.g. digestive tract infection, liver problem e.t.c using mouth washes, drinking enough water to hinder dryness of the mouth, using mouth mint, and spray and regular visited dental clinic with help to prevent its of the future victims.


Get Complete Project Material

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Halitosis Among Student In Shehu Idris College Of Health Science And Technology

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.