Assessment Of Knowledge And Attitude Of Nursing Mothers Towards Infant Health Care

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Assessment Of Knowledge And Attitude Of Nursing Mothers Towards Infant Health Care


Abstract


This study examines nursing mother’s knowledge and attitude towards infant health care. Specifically, the study examines the nursing mothers’ knowledge of infant healthcare in rural communities, evaluates the attitude of nursing mothers towards infant healthcare in rural communities and finds out the factors which influences nursing mothers’ knowledge and attitude towards infant healthcare in rural communities. A total of 260 responses were validated from the survey. The study adopts the interactive Theory of Breastfeeding. From the responses obtained and analysed, the findings reveals that the level of nursing mothers’ knowledge of infant healthcare in rural communities is high. The study also found out that the attitude of nursing mothers towards infant healthcare in rural communities is positive. The study recommends that fathers and other family members (such as mothers/mothers- in-law) should provide important social support for mothers with infants, so it is recom- mended that they are taught the necessary aspects of childcare to allow them to be more effective in reducing the stress of the mothers and increase the well-being of the infants. The study further recommends that health professionals evaluate the mothers’ sleep quality as soon as possible after preterm infants are discharged from the hospital. Ensuring that the mothers of preterm infants have enough sleep allows for a more effective support system and improves the quality of life of their families.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Caring for infants can be challenging, especially for first time mothers. Attitude of mothers towards caring for their infants has a major role in determining the nutritional status of children, maximizing the growth rate of a child at early years of life and has great potential for reducing under-five malnutrition and thereby affecting child mortality rate. According to Sahiu(2017), good nutrition is essential for the growth and development that occurs during an infant’s first year of life. When developing infants are fed the appropriate types and amounts of foods, their health is promoted. Positive and supportive feeding attitudes and techniques demonstrated by the nursing mothers help infants develop healthy attitudes toward foods, themselves, and others. Throughout the first year, many physiological changes occur that allow infants to consume foods of varying composition and texture.

Conceptually, infants are children between the age of 0 months – 12 months. According to Micah (2019), infants can be considered children anywhere from birth to 1 year old. In addition, Kamal (2017) assert that as an infant’s mouth, tongue, and digestive tract mature, the infant shifts from being able to only suckle, swallow, and take in liquid foods, such as breast milk or infant formula, to being able to chew and receive a wide variety of complementary foods. During optimal complementary feeding (CF) program the quantity and quality of food, frequency, and timeliness of feeding, food hygiene, and feeding during or after illness are highly considered . Besides these facts, Aina (2018) stated that, inadequate complementary feeding practice of 6 months to 2 years old children is a major problem. In rural communities, improving the nutrition of infants and young children is a top priority for human development. However, according to the 2020 World Health Organization’s (WHO) report, in low- and middle-income countries under-nutrition was linked to 45 % of deaths among children under 5 years of age. In the same year, 47 million children under 5 years of age are wasted, and 14.3 million are severely wasted and 144 million are stunted . Inappropriate nutrition can also lead to childhood obesity which is an increasing public health problem in many countries. Beyond the benefits that breastfeeding confers to the mother-child relationship, breastfeeding lowers the incidence of many childhood illnesses, such as middle infections, pneumonia, sudden infant death syndrome, diabetes mellitus, malocclusion, and diarrhea. Also, breastfeeding supports healthy brain development and is associated with higher performance on intelligence tests among children and adolescents . In mothers, breastfeeding has been shown to decrease the frequency of hemorrhage, postpartum depression, breast cancer, ovarian and endometrial cancer, as well as facilitating weight loss.

Furthermore, optimizing nutrition early in life including the 1000 days from conception to 24 months ensures the best possible start in life, with long-term benefits. Especially, since breastfeeding is one of the most effective ways to ensure child health and it could prevent 13 % of deaths occurring in children less than 5 years of age globally, while appropriate complementary feeding practices would result in an additional 6 % reduction in under-five mortality.

Also, to improve the infant health and development outcomes in rural communities, improved healthcare practices are crucial . Hence, factors, such as the knowledge and attitude of mothers on infant feeding in this critical time are very important for child health, growth, and development. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess nursing mother’s knowledge and attitude towards infant health care in rural communities.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

A nursing mother’s level of education is significantly associated with good knowledge as a educated mother is 3.8 times more likely to know the definition of exclusive breastfeeding than the unschooled mother. The uneducated mother was nearly 5 times more likely to correctly perform exclusive breastfeeding than the educated mother. However, poor child feeding practices, inadequate quantities, and inadequate quality of complementary foods have a severe consequence on health and growth in children less than 2 years of age. Similarly, research has shown that non breastfed infants aged 0–5 months have a 5-fold increased risk of death from pneumonia and a 7-fold increased risk of death from diarrhea, compared with infants who are exclusively breastfed.

Additionally, poor early childhood nutrition can negatively impact a child’s physical and emotional development in both the short and long-term, and limit adult achievement and productivity. It is in the light of these that the study seeks to assess nursing mother’s knowledge and attitude towards infant health care in rural communities.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to assess the knowledge and attitude of nursing mothers towards infant health care. Specifically, the study will;

  1. Assess the nursing mothers’ knowledge of infant healthcare in rural communities.
  2. Assess the attitude of nursing mothers towards infant healthcare in rural communities.
  3. Ascertain the factors which influences nursing mothers’ knowledge and attitude towards infant healthcare in rural communities.

1.4 Research Question

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

  1. What is the level of nursing mothers’ knowledge of infant healthcare in rural communities?
  2. What is the attitude of nursing mothers towards infant healthcare in rural communities?
  3. What are the factors influencing nursing mothers’ knowledge and attitude towards infant healthcare in rural communities?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Nursing mothers does not have adequate knowledge and positive attitude towards infant healthcare in rural communities.
  • Ha: Nursing mothers has adequate knowledge and positive attitude towards infant healthcare in rural communities.

1.6 Significant of the Study

An assessment of nursing mothers’ knowledge and attitude towards infant healthcare in rural communities will be revealed to the government at various levels, medical practitioners, and nursing mothers in this study. It will additionally enlighten mothers of the risk factors in infant malnutrition and exposure to germs. Furthermore, this research will be useful to nurses and mid-wives to disseminate information to a large population regarding the benefits of exclusive breast-feeding and ease their knowledge and attitude towards infant healthcare.

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as a literature review. This means that other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regard to an assessment of nursing mothers’ knowledge and attitude towards infant healthcare in rural communities.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is boarded on the assessment of nursing mothers’ knowledge and attitude towards infant healthcare. Geographically, the study will be delimited to nursing mothers and nurses in Moro local government, Kwara state, Nigeria.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents.

In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed.

More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other schools, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Knowledge:

A state of being aware that something exist.

Nursing Mother:

A mother who is breast-feeding her baby.

Healthcare:

Efforts made to maintain, restore, or promote someone’s physical, mental, or emotional well-being.

Attitude:

A settled way of thinking or feeling about something

Infant:

Children anywhere from birth to 1 year old.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on nursing mother’s knowledge and attitude towards infant health care in rural communities. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on nursing mother’s knowledge and attitude towards infant healthcare. The study is was specifically carried out to assess the nursing mothers’ knowledge of infant healthcare in rural communities, assess the attitude of nursing mothers towards infant healthcare in rural communities, and find out the factors which influences nursing mothers’ knowledge and attitude towards infant healthcare in rural communities.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 260 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are nursing mothers and nurses in Moro local government, Kwara state, Nigeria.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The level of nursing mothers’ knowledge of infant healthcare in rural communities is high.
  2. The attitude of nursing mothers towards infant healthcare in rural communities is positive.
  3. The factors influencing nursing mothers’ knowledge and attitude towards infant healthcare in rural communities include:
    1. Age
    2. Education
    3. Employment status
    4. Number of children

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Fathers and other family members (such as mothers/mothers- in-law) should provide important social support for mothers with infants, so it is recom- mended that they are taught the necessary aspects of childcare to allow them to be more effective in reducing the stress of the mothers and increase the well-being of the infants.
  2. Health professionals evaluate the mothers’ sleep quality as soon as possible after preterm infants are discharged from the hospital. Ensuring that the mothers of preterm infants have enough sleep allows for a more effective support system and improves the quality of life of their families.
  3. Facilities such as crèche should be provided by various governments and private organization at work place and in higher institution of learning, to enable nursing mothers who are working or studying continue breastfeeding without jeopardizing their work or study. Employers should also be encouraged to give nursing mothers extra break time to be able to perform this very important act of breastfeeding.

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