Factors Influencing Childbearing Women’s Choice Of Health Care Services
People in poor countries tend to have less access to health services than those in better-off countries, and within countries, the poor have less access to health services. This article documents disparities in access to health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), using a framework incorporating quality, geographic accessibility, availability, financial accessibility, and acceptability of services. Whereas the poor in LMICs are consistently at a disadvantage in each of the dimensions of access and their determinants, this need not be the case. Many different approaches are shown to improve access to the poor, using targeted or universal approaches, engaging government, nongovernmental, or commercial organizations, and pursuing a wide variety of strategies to finance and organize services.
Key ingredients of success include concerted efforts to reach the poor, engaging communities and disadvantaged people, encouraging local adaptation and careful monitoring of effects on the poor. Yet governments in LMICs rarely focus on the poor in their policies or the implementation or monitoring of health service strategies. There are also new innovations in financing, delivery, and regulation of health services that hold promise for improving access to the poor, such as the use of health equity funds, conditional cash transfers, and coproduction and regulation of health services. The challenge remains to find ways to ensure that vulnerable populations have a say in how strategies are developed, implemented, and accounted for in ways that demonstrate improvements in access by the poor.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the problem
- 1.3 Objective of the study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research hypotheses
- 1.6 Significance of the study
- 1.7 Scope of the study
- 1.8 Limitation of the study
- 1.9 Definition of terms
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Review of concepts
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the study
- 3.3 Sample size determination
- 3.4 Sample size selection technique and procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of data collection
- 3.7 Method of data analysis
- 3.8 Validity and Reliability of the study
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Answering Research Questions
- 4.3 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Pregnancy and childbirth are significant events in the lifespan of women, with evidences that these experiences are deeply felt (Simkin, 1991). As one childbearing woman stated, “Giving birth is the ultimate experience a woman can have” (Callister, 1992). In contrast to even a decade ago childbearing today is often a conscious choice. Annually in the United States, about four million women or 7% of women of reproductive age give birth (Grad & Hill, 1992). With the declining birth rate, childbearing has become a once or twice in a lifetime experience with increasing significance to women, an emotional, physical, cultural and spiritual event that has deep meaning (Affonso, 1989; Simkin, 1992; Watson, 1991). Health care providers, either physicians or certified nurse midwives, play an important role in the childbearing experience by sharing information, giving support, providing access to resources, and providing care during childbirth (Inui, Carter, Kukull & Haigh, 1982). In studies of childbearing women, positive childbearing experiences were enhanced if there was a fit between the women and their caregivers (Aaronson, 1987; Chute, 1985). In a 25 year longitudinal study of the memories of childbearing women, the researcher (Simkin, 1991) found, accessibility to health care facility and The way a woman is treated by the professionals on whom she depends may largely determine how she feels about the experience for the rest of her life. Therefore, the selection of a primary health care provider for childbearing is very important to women. The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine factors influencing childbearing women’s choice of health care services
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
Health care service is a profoundly important aspect of childbearing preparation and has powerful sociocultural implications in some cultures. However, the primary consideration for women in birthplace decision-making is the safety of themselves and their babies as ‘Everyone wants to be safe. Indeed, everyone believes in her own perception and an understanding of what ‘safety’ is all about (Sofolahan-Oladehinde, 2017) with the hope that a safe area confers survival on both mother and the new-born. Although, delivery could take hours, but the effects of the process on the health condition on both the mother and the baby cannot be over-emphasized. It is undeniable that not every birthplace has skilled personnel, yet people deliver in many places. The effect of decision making in choice of health care services is highly influential. One or more of these play out when an expectant mother is making choice of where to put to bed. Significantly, health care has considerable effects on the outcome(s) of delivery both to the neonate and the mother.An expectant mother is faced with many factors which can influence her decision on health care services which may include but not limited to her level of knowledge, accessibility, economic status, perception etc. distance and transport to health services exerts a dual influence on use. The obstacle effect of distance is stronger when combined with lack of transport and poor roads. All these and more will be discussed in the study
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The primary objective of the study is as follows
- To find out why childbearing women make certain decision on the health care services she wants
- To find out factors that influences childbearing women’s choice of health care services
- To find out how to make health care facilities accessible to childbearing women
- To examine if health care facilities can be improved upon
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions have been prepared for the study
- Do childbearing women make certain decision on the health care services she wants?
- What are the factors that influences childbearing women’s choice of health care services?
- Can health care facilities be accessible to childbearing women?
- Can health care facilities can be improved upon?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- H0: there are no factors that influences childbearing women’s choice of health care services?
- H1: there are factors that influences childbearing women’s choice of health care services?
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study cannot be underestimated as:
- This study will examine factors influencing childbearing women’s choice of health care services
- The findings of this research work will undoubtedly provide the much needed information to government organizations, ministry of health, and academia.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study will examine factors influencing childbearing women’s choice of health care services. Hence, it will be delimited to Ibarapa east local government of Oyo state.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:
Just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data
Financial constraint , was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires
Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
The capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behaviour of someone or something, or the effect itself.
Relating to the process of conceiving, being pregnant with, and giving birth to children women of childbearing age.
A business entity that provides inpatient or outpatient testing or treatment of human disease or dysfunction; dispensing of drugs
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
In this study, our focus was to examine factors influencing childbearing women’s choice of health care services using childbearing mothers in Ibarapa as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at highlighting why childbearing women make certain decision on the health care services she wants. factors that influences childbearing women’s choice of health care services. how to make health care facilities accessible to childbearing women. examine if health care facilities can be improved upon.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 120 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from selected childbearing mothers in Ibarapa.
Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:
- Childbearing women make certain decision on the health care services she wants
- Lack of financial capability influence childbearing women choice of health care service.
- Long distance to the health care facility influence childbearing women choice of health care service.
- Luxurious lifestyle influence childbearing women choice of health care service.
- Health care facilities be accessible to childbearing women.
- Health care facilities can be improved upon.
Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
- That government should improve the health care facilities and also make health care services accessible, especially to the financially incapable ones
- That childbearing women should make good choices on the kind of health care service they decide to use for the safety of their unborn babies and themselves
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