Quality Health Care Delivery System On Inmates In The Nigerian Correctional Service

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Quality Health Care Delivery System On Inmates In The Nigerian Correctional Service


Abstract


The dilapidation state of the Nigeria prisons demonstrates a condition that cannot guarantee the reformatory process of the inmates. This can be attributed to the disregard for the health of the inmates and failure to implement the prison reforms recommendations. The paper examined the quality health care delivery system on inmates in the Nigerian correctional service in Ado Ekiti prisons in Ekiti States. The study employed a descriptive survey research design with the use of a structured questionnaire to obtain information from the inmates. Multi stage sampling technique was adopted to select the respondents (inmates) from the two prisons. Data for this study were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi square to test the hypothesis formulated for the study.

The study revealed that poor administration of the criminal justice systems and unethical practices of the Nigeria police force in Nigeria resulting to high number of inmates awaiting trials are the major causes of overcrowding of the prisons. Therefore, overcrowding constitute a major threat to the health of the inmates. In addition the study revealed that prison reforms have a significant impact on the health of the inmates in Ado Ekiti. The study recommended government intervention in the implementation of the previously recommended prison reforms, constant supervision of the prisons by the Minister of interior and allocation of funds for provision of infrastructure to cater for the needs of the Nigeria Prison Service.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background Of The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of The General Problem
  • 1.3 Aims And Objectives Of The Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance Of The Study
  • 1.7 Scope And Limitation Of The Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 An Evaluation Of The Reforms Programs In The Nigeria Prison System
  • 2.3 Prison Health In Nigeria
  • 2.4 Challenges And Rationale For Reform Of The Nigerian Prisons System
  • 2.5 Theoretical Review

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Research Instrument
  • 3.3 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion Of Findings

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Despite Nigeria’s progress on democratic, economic and political reforms, Nigeria’s prisons are yet to make appreciable impact on the health of the inmates. A recurring debate within contemporary academic circles, criminologists, health workers and prison experts, is to ensure an appropriate health template for proper prison administration that will reflect its objectives. Even though crime and other vices need to be deterred, it should be to the extent that inmates’ health should be adequately taken care of during and after imprisonment; it is therefore needful to be logical and rational in terms of health delivery while in custody.

Seven years into the new millennium, health for all prison inmates in Nigeria and many African nations has remained mirage. Recent assessment of African Prison Health systems indicates a gloomy picture of weakness in performance (African Regional Health Report, 2006). The inability to provide quality and equitable access to prison health care services through much reliance on western health care framework have further widening the existing health inequalities in many African countries and the Nigerian prisons in particular. This scenario has also the poor and the rich, urban and rural dwellers, inmates and the “free” at different axis of the production spectrum of health care delivery in Nigeria.

A good example of this unfavourable equation becomes obvious when the health of special groups like the prisoners is critically examined (Health in African Prisons, 1999). Evidence has linked major determinants of health in modern populations to socioeconomic, political and cultural factors and as such inequalities in health have remained problematic across cultures, socio-economic class, gender or ethnicity (Bambra et al., 2005). In the social sequence of events, prison inmates are most times from the poorest sectors of the society, and suffer more from inequitable access to effective health care services. This experience also exacerbates existing health problems of inmates (de viggiani, 2007).

Hence, the current drive towards realizing the health related millennium development goals requires more forceful drive from the Nigerian government. Health is political and the power exercised over it is part of the wider economic, social and political system (Bambra1, et al., 2005). Thus, achieving both qualitative and quantitative health among special groups like prison inmates may be far from realization going by the slow attitude of prison officials and the government in particular in addressing the health needs of prisoners. Hence, this paper attempts a sociological discourse of prison health within the social context producing it. This was done by discussing prison health in Nigeria as a social product. The paper further suggest plausible model on which optimum prison health in Nigeria could be realized.


1.2 Statement Of The General Problem

The unsavory nature of Nigeria prisons health care system leaves one in doubt, with too many questions and fewer answers; being that majority of persons become susceptible to diseases and infections than when they never went behind bars and commit more heineous crimes. Officers and men of Nigeria prisons epitomize have not taken the health of prison inmates seriously which many are certainly not satisfied with their conditions of service delivery health wise. Interestingly, prison still remains indispensable in correcting, reforming and rehabilitating “perceived convicts” in Nigeria. It is worrisome that recommendations and suggestions made to government for prison health reforms are yet to be implemented.


1.3 Aims And Objectives Of The Study

The main objective of the study is to examine the quality health care delivery system on inmates in the Nigerian correctional service. Other specific objectives of the study include;

  1. To examine the health condition of prison inmates.
  2. To assess the environmental condition of Nigeria prisons.
  3. To assess the benefit to effective health care delivery in Nigeria prisons.
  4. To examine the Nigerian prison reforms.
  5. To examine the challenges to achieving an effective health care delivery system for prison inmates.
  6. To recommend ways of improving health care delivery in Nigeria prisons.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions were formulated to guide the study

  1. What are the health conditions of prison inmates in Nigeria?
  2. What are the environmental conditions of Nigeria prisons?
  3. What is the benefit to effective health care delivery in Nigeria prisons?
  4. What are the Nigerian prison reforms that would improve health care delivery?
  5. What are the challenges to achieving an effective health care delivery system for prison inmates?
  6. What are the ways of improving health care delivery in Nigeria prisons?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • H0: There are no challenges to effective health care system in Nigerian prisons.
  • H1: There are challenges to effective health care system in Nigerian prisons.

1.6 Significance Of The Study

The study would greatly benefit the Nigerian prison service and the federal government as it would reveal the benefits of effective health care system and the challenges of achieving effective health care system in Nigerian prisons across the country. the study would also be of immense importance to students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing a further study on the subject matter.


1.7 Scope And Limitation Of The Study

The study is restricted to quality health care delivery system on inmates in the Nigerian correctional service Ado ekiti, Ekiti state as a case study.

Limitation Of The Study
Financial constraint:

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)

Time constraint:

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

Congestion constitutes a major problem creating a negative effect on the health of the inmates in the Nigeria prisons. This is being attributed to poor administration of criminal justice in Nigeria and unethical activities of the Nigeria Police which has constantly threatened the physical, mental and social well-being of the inmates. Consequently, the Nigeria prison has failed to achieve its major role of rehabilitation and reformation of inmates but rather the scenario has been that of dehumanizing situation and hardening of the inmates. Several writers have identified congestion as a major problem facing the Nigeria prisons which has exposed the inmates to improper health conditions, claimed the lives of some inmates and put enormous pressure on prison infrastructure.

In addition, the non-implementation of prison reforms by several presidential commissions and committees can be indicted of the increasing number of inmates awaiting trials. The study revealed that a higher percentage of the inmates are awaiting trial and congestion is a typical problem of the prisons which has a negative effect on the health of the inmates. In addition, the findings showed that delay justice contributed to the problem of congestion and that urgent solution is needed to alleviate this problem of the Nigeria prisons. Therefore, the study concludes that the government needs to expedite action in ensuring the implementation of the recommended prison reforms which will address decongestion of the prisons, establishment of more prisons, and the upgrading of existing ones in order to improve the health of the inmates.


5.2 Recommendations

Based on the research findings, the following recommendations were made:

  1. The government should ensure the implementation of the previously recommended prison reforms which include granting of more amnesty to prisoners whose offences are pardonable.
  2. The government should ensure that the Minister of interior supervises constantly the prisons and adequate funds should be provided to cater for the needs of the Nigeria Prison Service.
  3. The government should provide the needed infrastructures and facilities that will cater for the health of the inmates.

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