Perception And Utilization Of University Clinic Service Among Students Of Taraba State University

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Perception And Utilization Of University Clinic Service Among Students Of Taraba State University


Abstract


This study assesses the perception and utilization of university clinic service among students of Taraba State University in the past 6 months and perceived barriers towards utilisation among university students. Using cross-sectional design, a self-administered questionnaire was collected from 240 students. Frequencies were used to illustrate students’ utilisation, health conditions they presented with, and their perception of barriers. Health centre services were used by less than half of the students in the past 6 months, with the most frequent health conditions for utilisation being influenza (23.5%), headache (14.7%) and abdominal pain (11.8%). About 64.6% of the students were satisfied with health centre services. However, unavailability of drugs (22.5%), medical staff/student relationships (17.1%), medical staff and doctors’ experience (10%), inadequate referral services (8.3%), and long waiting time (5%) were barriers perceived by students to affect their utilisation. This study highlights university students’ health-seeking behaviour that will help to promote health among Taraba state university students.


Table of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Research Objectives
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Definition of Terms
  • 1.8 Organization of Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Concept of Health Care Services in Nigeria
  • 2.2 Factors Influencing Students’ Health
  • 2.3 Utilization of Healthcare by Students
  • 2.4 Techniques Used by Providers
  • 2.5 Measurement of Patient Satisfaction
  • 2.6 The Importance of Understanding Health Care Utilization
  • 2.7 Theoretical Review
  • 2.7.1 Andersen Model Of Healthcare Utilization (1968)

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Study Area
  • 3.3 Target Population
  • 3.4 Research Instrument
  • 3.5 Data Analysis
  • 3.6 Ethical Considerations

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Healthcare on university campuses is not a new concept. There is little evidence surrounding the effectiveness and adaptability of services provided to students by clinics or healthcare facilities located on campus. The American College Health Association (ACHA) was founded in 1920 to connect healthcare professionals from across the country with a mission of: “advancing the health of college students and campus communities through advocacy, education, and research” (ACHA, 2). This statement is expressed today through a multitude of (a) actions,
(b) provisions, and (c) advancements in the healthcare students can receive on their campus and in the surrounding community. When the ACHA was founded almost a century ago, many campuses considered healthcare of students to fall under an already existing department on campus (i.e., the physical education department). Today, many campuses have separate entities for the medical care they provide for students. Not only has the (a) safety, (b) quality, and (c) compass of care advanced over time, the needs and desires of students seeking care from healthcare providers on campus has evolved (ACHA, 2016).

There is much research surrounding individual concepts of the healthcare resources provided on campus including:

  • Convenience (Sunil and Zottarelli, 2011),
  • Holistic care (Lamot, 2015),
  • Abilities to refer to off campus specialty clinics (Eisenburg et al., 2012), and
  • Factors related directly to the patient’s beliefs and values (Sunil and Zottarelli, 2011).

Each of these areas has a different influence on a student’s likeliness to use the healthcare resources provided on campus or seek out healthcare resources from an alternate location. However, there is a considerable gap in tools used to measure opinions directly related to the (a) services, (b) quality, (c) perception, (d) initiatives, and (e) overall satisfaction with the provisions provided by healthcare professionals located on university campuses.

Many college students lead busy lives involving a multitude of (a) academic, (b) social, and (c) extracurricular activities. Despite advertising efforts and provisions available to students on campuses, research shows that students are not likely to seek out preventative care (e.g. vaccinations) due to the misconception that students are immune or unlikely to acquire certain illnesses (Sunil and Zottarelli, 2011).

Sunil and Zottarelli (2011) suggest other factors also influence the response of students towards seeking out healthcare resources on campus including (a) benefits, (b) knowledge, as well as (c) perceived level of public health threat. Current researchers suggest a need to seek out techniques to reach a greater number of students, with the aim of decreasing outbreaks of communicable diseases through methods targeting the areas students report as being influential in their decision-making process, including friends, relatives, and education (Sunil & Zottarelli, 2011).

Frequently sought-after healthcare resources on university campuses include (a) sexual health resources (i.e. condoms, oral contraceptive medications, pregnancy testing or care) and (b) sexually transmitted infection testing. However, many students are concerned about violations of privacy relating to (a) peers, (b) healthcare workers, and (c) the university. Concerns include

  • Judgment by healthcare providers and peers when they are seeking access to items that promote safer sex,
  • The quality or safety of the condoms available to the students for free, as well as
  • Communication of and distribution methods for these resources.

Due to the large number of students actively engaging in sexual activities, providing adequate education and convenience are necessary to gaining the trust of and protecting students against potentially serious health conditions (Eisenberg et al., 2012).

In consideration of providing a holistic approach to healthcare resources on college campuses, mental health has been shown to have a correlation with self-reported health and acquired infections in university female students. Lamont (2015) indicates that women who report lower self-esteem also feel unhealthy and report more frequent infections. In combination with other factors, such as (a) smoking, (b) obesity, and (c) depression or anxiety, the study suggests a relation to physical health and immunity. Further research concerning the complexity of holistic care as it relates to students on university campuses is needed to confirm potential ties between mental and physical health in relation to the success of university students (Lamont, 2015).


1.2 Statement of Problem

As previously expressed, there is a gap in the literature regarding methods and tools that can be utilized to measure the success of healthcare on campus as it relates to student patient satisfaction. However, there are resources concerning factors and measurement in the adolescent setting, which can provide leads as to aspects of both the patient and the healthcare that are essential to determining overall satisfaction. Adolescent patients can be defined by various ages. One study described adolescent patients as persons aged 16-20 years and found significant relationships between (a) physical, (b) psychological, (c) spiritual, and (d) social aspects and overall wellness (Spurr et al., 2012).

Currently, young adults account for around 1.8 billion of the world’s population.University is a place where students receive their education, training, develop life skills and learn how to become more independent. [4] In order to ensure the great advantage of university, students should have healthy minds and healthy bodies. Hence, university administrators developed health care services to meet students’ physical and mental health needs. [5]

Several health conditions were identified by students in previous literature that promote students’ utilisation of health care services; these were fatigue, headaches and allergies. [9] In Africa, additional health conditions such as malaria, typhoid and stomach pains were also reported. [10] However, university students identify some barriers that affect their utilisation of health care centre services; these are the cost, waiting time, insufficient health information, unfriendly attitude of health care employees and medication shortage.[10,11]Regardless of the driving and hindering forces behind the utilisation of health care services, university students’ level of satisfaction varied greatly; [10,12,13] while 63% of Malaysian university students were dissatisfied, the Nigerian students were satisfied. [12,13]

A comprehensive literature review revealed little in-depth evaluation available regarding students’ utilisation of university health care services. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the perception and utilization of university clinic service among students of Taraba State University.


1.3 Research Objectives

The main aim of this study is to assess the perception and utilization of university clinic service among students of Taraba State University.

The specific objectives are as follows;

  1. To determine the health conditions that make students utilize university clinic services among students of Taraba State University
  2. To ascertain the level of satisfaction with clinic service among students of Taraba State University
  3. To identify the perception of barriers affecting students’ utilisation of university clinic service

1.4 Research Question

  1. What are the health conditions that make students utilize university clinic services among students of Taraba State University?
  2. What is the level of satisfaction with clinic service among students of Taraba State University?
  3. What is the perception of barriers affecting students’ utilisation of university clinic service?

1.5 Hypothesis

  • HO1: There is no significant relationship between perception and utilization of university clinic service among students of Taraba State University
  • HA1: There is a significant relationship between perception and utilization of university clinic service among students of Taraba State University.

1.6 Significance of the Study

In the realm of healthcare, the patient is the highest priority and ensuring their confidence is essential. An evaluation of current satisfaction is necessary to make improvements and strive towards a patient-centered environment. The question to be answered is: How are the perceptions of college students towards the healthcare provisions provided on campus measured? This study provides feedback as to how public institutions of higher education in Nigeria can begin to work towards a more student-centered approach, provides insight related to current patient satisfaction assessment methods, and provides leads towards future discussion or research on more specific factors concerning student satisfaction as it relates to healthcare on campus by evaluating tools currently used to measure patient satisfaction.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Perception:

The way in which something is regarded, understood, or interpreted.

Utilization:

The action of making practical and effective use of something.

University Clinic:

Refers to the centre where the health care services are made available to students


1.8 Organization of Study

The study comprises of 5 chapters. In chapter one, the concepts are introduced and the problem of the study is established with the research objectives and questions. Chapter two presents the literature review while chapter three presents the research methodology. The fourth chapter presents the results and discussion, and the last chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

The study was carried out to assess the perception and utilization of university clinic service among students of Taraba State University. 240 students from selected faculties in the school were used. A significant gap can be seen in the categorical measurement of student health. Literature suggests this gap is a national phenomenon. University health services shows a need for increased patient satisfaction measurement. This provides grounds to assume other universities may have the same gap in measurement of patient satisfaction seen in the state. Effective measurement of patient satisfaction with campus healthcare services does not occur across the nation. There is a need for effective categorical measurement of student health at universities nationally. It is necessary that universities across the nation establish a holistic survey to measure satisfaction among college students as it pertains to determining perceptions of college students toward healthcare provisions provided on campus.


5.2 Conclusion

The present study added to the body of knowledge in community health nursing regarding university students’ health- seeking behaviour which will promote health among university students. In addition, it informs administrators of the universities about existing health services, and helps in planning and allocation of resources. Future plans to develop university health centre services must address the barriers perceived by students to affect their utilisation. Finally, this study could be replicated in other universities in Taraba and Nigeria.


5.3 Recommendations

  1. The findings described above indicate a need for the development of a standardized criteria to be utilized by university students in the state. Efforts should be made to address Factors Influencing Student Health, Techniques Utilized by Providers, Utilization of Healthcare by Students, and Measurement of Patient Satisfaction.
  2. Researchers, students, clinicians, and other stakeholders should work collaboratively to develop tools that adequately measure student satisfaction pertaining to care received at university-affiliated clinics and facilities in the State.
  3. Effective measurement of patient satisfaction requires a holistic approach to assess factors that target college students specifically. The efforts should not stop in the state.
  4. Further research should be completed to look at a broader geographical area, reasons for the lack of patient satisfaction surveys, and potential ways to increase usage of a more standardized approach to measuring college student satisfaction with healthcare services provided on campus.

Perception And Utilization Of University Clinic Service Among Students Of Taraba State University


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