A Survey Of Open Larval Habitats Of Mosquitoes
Larval survey of open habitats of mosquitoes was carried out in Awka, Isiagu, Nibo and Umuawulu communities in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State. The study was carried out from May-July 2011 during the wet season and December 2011-February 2012 in the dry season. The collection of larvae of mosquitoes was done using dipper and pipette. Nike Flyknit Air Max Heren Five larval habitats of mosquitoes namely ground pools, drains/gutter, used tyres, discarded domestic containers and tree holes/leaf axils were identified in the wet season while only ground pool along river bank was identified in the dry season survey. A total of 343 larvae of mosquitoes belonging to three genera and five species were collected and identified.
These were Aedes aegypti 43.4% (149/343), Culex quinquefasciatus 25.4% (87/343), Culex tigripes 15.5% (53/343), Anopheles gambiae 12.5% (43/343), and Anopheles funestus 3.2% (11/343). Culex quinquefasciatus had the highest distribution in ground pools (36.7%) followed by Anopheles gambiae (33.7%). In drains/gutters, Culex tigripes had the highest distribution of 37.9% followed by A. aegypti and other species. In used tyres, only larvae of A. aegypti and C. Nike Darwin Goedkoop quinquefasciatus were identified. Nike Air Max 95 Prem Tape Dame Similar result was obtained for domestic discarded containers where A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus were collected. The only larvae of mosquitoes found in tree holes/leaf axils were C. Nike Air Max 2016 Dame tigripes. Nike Air Max Dame
The result also showed that Anopheles gambiae and A. funestus bred only in ground pools and drains/gutters. Only larvae of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were identified in the dry season survey near river bank in vegetable farms. Air Max 2015 Zwart Blauw Rood Goedkoop Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference (p>0.05) in identified larval habitats and among species of mosquitoes in various larval habitats in the wet season v There was however significant difference (p<0.05) in larval distribution in wet and dry seasons. Adequate knowledge of larval habitats of mosquitoes will help inform better environmental management in the control of mosquito-borne diseases.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the problem
- 1.3 Objective of the study
- 1.4 Research Hypothesis
- 1.5 Significance of the study
- 1.6 Scope of the study
- 1.7 Limitation of the study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 Mosquitoes
- 2.3 Various Mosquito Larval Habitats
- 2.4 Species Composition of Mosquito Larvae in Natural and Artificial Habitat
- 2.5 The Mosquito Biological Life Cycle
- 2.6 Mosquito Prevention and Control
Materials and Methods
- 3.1 Description of Study Area
- 3.2 Selection of Study Communities and Sampling Sites
- 3.3 Collection and Rearing of Larvae of Mosquitoes
- 3.4 Rearing of Larvae to Adult for Species Identification.
- 3.5 Identification and Preservation of Reared Adults
- 3.6 Statistical Analysis
- 3.7 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Descriptive Analysis
- 4.3 Inferential Statistics
Summary and Conclusion
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
1.1 Background of the study
Mosquitoes are of great and remarkable importance to the health and economic development of man. They transmit and disseminate both human and animal diseases. Among the public health and veterinary important arthropods, mosquitoes rank first in the spread of such diseases as malaria, yellow fever, filariasis, dengue fever, encephalitis as well as other viral and bacterial diseases (Gillet, 1972; Service 1980). Apart from disease transmission, mosquitoes are regarded as public enemies because of their biting annoyance, noise nuisance, sleeplessness and allergic reactions due to their bites (Onyido et al., 2009a). According to World Malaria Report (WHO, 2010), malaria transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes still infects over 200 million people and kills up to 800,000 worldwide, with over 90% of the death still in subSaharan Africa. Malaria is quite endemic throughout Nigeria with more than 90% of the total population at risk of stable transmission (FMOH, 2010, Aribodor, 2009). At least 50% of the population suffers from at least one episode of malaria each year. An estimated 300,000 children die of malaria each year, and 11% of maternal mortality is related to malaria in pregnant women. The Federal Ministry of Health also notes that malaria leads to 25% of infant mortality and 30% of childhood mortality annually (FMOH, 2010). The disease also constitutes a major economic burden. About 132 billion Naira is lost to malaria annually in the form of treatment costs, prevention, and loss of work. This mosquito-borne disease is also responsible for the high rate of school absenteeism among students. These challenges are despite huge investments and efforts to control the disease over a century. Lymphatic filariasis transmitted by various species of mosquitoes including Anopheles, Mansonia, Culex and Aedes affects 120 million people with 40 million having overt disease and 80 million hidden damage (Ottesen, 2006). Yellow fever still remains one of the most debilitating diseases in tropical Africa and America. The disease which is endemic in most parts of Nigeria, is commonly noticed as devastating epidemics (it appears in cycles of epidemics) taking tolls on human lives and the economy (Monath, 1985; Tomori et al., 1991)Water supports many forms of life including the larval development of mosquitoes. Mosquitoes generally breed in various types of stagnant water. Mosquito larval stages develop in these various habitats and emerge to become adult mosquitoes that transmit diseases to man and his livestock. The adult mosquitoes show a very distinct preference for the types of water sources in which to lay their eggs. Each species has unique environmental requirements which could be determined from larval habitats (Okogun et al., 2003). According to The Urban Malaria Control Program of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (TUMCP, 2005), mosquito habitat types can be broadly distinguished into Open Habitat and Closed Habitat. Open Habitats are defined as water bodies that are exposed to the open air and light. This means that in the Open Habitat, light can reach the water surface, and also plants can grow inside. These parameters have implications for mosquito breeding.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Part of the problem militating against effective and sustained control of mosquitoes and the diseases transmitted by them is that mosquitoes breed in diverse aquatic media that are naturally occurring and/or the creation of human activities. There are variations in the ecology of mosquitoes within and between countries of the world which is an integral part of the epidemiology of mosquito borne diseases. It is generally agreed that a clear understanding of the detailed ecology of mosquitoes is a pre-requisite for effective control of mosquito borne diseases. Tropical areas including Nigeria have the best combination of adequate rainfall, temperature and humidity, allowing for breeding and survival of different species of mosquitoes. Larval survey of mosquitoes can be used as an indicator of the risk of mosquito borne diseases transmission in a given area. This is because species specific preference for certain breeding sites has resulted in development of species sanitation programmes which usually achieved great success in different mosquito borne disease control in endemic parts of the world in early 20th century (Takken et al., 1991; Bradley, 1994). The application of larval control approach is considered an effective method of mosquito control and for the campaign to be successful, the type of habitat must be considered. Subsequently, the most productive habitat should be given a priority attention. Larval surveys for mosquitoes are designed to assess the distribution of the aquatic stages of various disease transmitting mosquitoes of man and animals in a given community. A collection of baseline data on mosquito larval habitats over a period will inform vector control operations, thus improving public health. Such questions as what kind of mosquitoes should be targeted in control operation, when, where and how to target them, can satisfactorily be addressed after a detailed larval survey, thus in a bid to answer this questions was borne the focus of this study.
1.3 Objective of the study
This study therefore aims at investigating the open larval habitats of mosquitoes in Awka South Local Government Area (LGA) of Anambra State, Nigeria.
The specific objectives include;
- To identify mosquito breeding habitats in the study area.
- To identify the species of mosquitoes breeding in these larval habitats in the three selected communities in the study area.
- To determine the preferred larval habitats for the species of mosquitoes.
- To determine the seasonal variation of mosquito larvae in the study area.
1.4 Research Hypothesis
- HO: There is no significant difference in identified larval habitats and among species of mosquitoes in various larval habitats in the wet season
- HI: There is a significant difference in identified larval habitats and among species of mosquitoes in various larval habitats in the wet season HO:There is no significant difference in larval distribution in wet and dry seasons.
- HI: There is A significant difference in larval distribution in wet and dry seasons.
1.5 Significance of the study
Breeding sites of mosquitoes seem to persist in riverine communities. This is because of the presence of water required for egg laying in the lifecycle of mosquitoes and this could be provided all seasons in riverine communities.
The result of this study on Larva survey will be relevant to inform vector control operations, researcher thus improving public health. More so, the study will contribute empirically to the body of existing knowledge as serve as reference material to student ans scholars who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.
1.6 Scope of the study
The scope of this study borders on a Survey Of Open Larval Habitats Of Mosquitoes. Although mosquitoes seems to persist in rural communities due to the presence of water required for egg laying, It then means that different mosquito species are likely to be found there; which may pose serious risk of mosquito borne diseases. However, there is no information on the mosquito fauna and mosquito borne diseases present in some riverine areas of South Eastern Nigerian. This is the reason why the study will be delimited to wka, Isiagu, Nibo and Umuawulu communities in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State.
1.7 Limitation of the study
In the course of conducting this research work it is expected that the following will constitute impediments to the effective conduct of the study such as Time constraint within which the study must be completed, Financial constraint, Inaccessible and inadequate data and also, combining project work with several other activities is another stressful task that may not allow me to cover research materials extensively. Nevertheless, it is believed that the above limitations will in no way affect the reliability and validity of the research study.
Summary and Conclusion
The focus of this study aimed at investigating the open larval habitats of mosquitoes in Awka South Local Government Area (LGA) of Anambra State, Nigeria. The study identified mosquito breeding habitats in the study area. It identified the species of mosquitoes breeding in these larval habitats in the three selected communities in the study area. It determined the preferred larval habitats for the species of mosquitoes.
The study was carried out from May-July 2011 during the wet season and December 2011-February 2012 in the dry season. The collection of larvae of mosquitoes was done using dipper and pipette. A total of 343 larvae of mosquitoes belonging to three genera and five species were collected and identified. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. The statistical tools used were chi square and simpsons index of diversity (ED).
All mosquitoes need water to complete their lifecycle, but some only need very small amounts. Thus best approach to controlling mosquitoes is prevention, searching for and eliminating breeding sites of standing water in your indoor and nearby outdoor environment and cooperating across neighborhoods, communities and with local district efforts.
Many mosquito species can develop from egg to biting female adult in under a week. and Not all species bite humans; some prefer birds,others prefer horses. But even those which prefer birds will feed on humans if the opportunity arises.Only females take a blood meal; both males and females feed on plant nectar. While some mosquito species fly considerable distances, 20 miles or more. Some species tend to remain close to their larval habitats.
Adult females can survive several weeks, some months, e.g., Culex mosquitoes overwinter as adults. Mosquitoes are responsible for more human mortality around the world than any other living creature.
In summary, our study found that not all potential breeding sites in the study area were important mosquito breeding sites and most Anopheles habitats were anthropogenic. The level of pyrethroid resistance observed in An. gambiae s.l. populations in the study area can have a negative impact on the nation’s malaria control program. To be effective, malaria control programs should also target Culex mosquitoes because previously exclusive Culex habitats currently also support Anopheles. People will resort to household insecticides for protection against mosquito bites, whether from Anopheles or Culex, and this could continue to drive resistance to a higher level. Larval control and the prevention of formation of larval habitats can be a strong tool in managing both Culex and Anopheles in urban areas. Larval habitat prevention can only be achieved when people have adequate knowledge of the life history of mosquitoes.
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