Cultural Beliefs And Gender Dynamics Of PMTCT Services Among Pregnant Women

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Cultural Beliefs And Gender Dynamics Of PMTCT Services Among Pregnant Women


Abstract


This study was carried out on cultural beliefs and gender dynamics of PMTCT services among pregnant women. To achieve this, three significant research objectives were formulated. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of married men and women in Agbogugu community, Enugu State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 119respondents while 109 were received and 100 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and percentage. The result of the findings reveals that men always receive negative attitudes from community members when escorting their spouses to the antenatal clinic. The findings also revealed that men who accompany their wives to ANC have been perceived to be weaklings by their peers. In regard to the findings, the study recommends that health personnel should always encourage husbands of women living with HIV to utilize PMTCT services to prevent mother to child transmission of the virus; health personnel should avoid discrimination of women living with HIV and to show them positive attitude to that will encourage them to continue to utilize PMTCT services; The government should provide PMTCT centres in rural areas so as to provide access to PMTCT facilities to all, especially among women resident in rural areas. This will serve as an encouragement to rural pregnant women to utilize the PMTCT services.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In many communities in sub-Saharan Africa, pregnancy is viewed as a ‘woman’s affair’, with a man’s role primarily to provide financial support. Even where men view accompanying their partner to antenatal clinics or PMTCT services as good practice, many still feels their main role is to provide financing for registration and delivery fees (Nkuoh, 2010).

In many settings, traditional gender roles and cultural beliefs mean that men often make decisions determining women’s participation in HIV testing. For example, according to recent Demographic and Health Surveys in Senegal, Niger, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Nigeria and Cameroon, 80% of married 15-19 year-old women do not have the final say on their own healthcare (Pathfinder International 2013).Men also report negative attitudes from community members when escorting their spouses to antenatal clinics.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Because of cultural beliefs, most men do not like to accompany their wives to the antenatal clinics. Men who accompany their wives to ANC are perceived to be weaklings by their peers. For this reason, this pertinent question formed the birth rock of this study: what are the cultural beliefs and gender dynamics of PMTCT services among pregnant women.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general aim of this study is to examine the cultural beliefs and gender dynamics of PMTCT services among pregnant women. Specifically, the study will

  1. Determine if men often make decisions determining their wife’s participation in HIV testing
  2. Determine if men always receive negative attitudes from community members when escorting their spouses to the antenatal clinic
  3. Determine if men who accompany their wives to ANC are perceived to be weaklings by their peers.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions will guild this study;

  1. Do men often make decisions determining their wife’s participation in HIV testing?
  2. Do men always receive negative attitudes from community members when escorting their spouses to the antenatal clinic?
  3. Do men who accompany their wives to ANC been perceived to be weaklings by their peers?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study will educate prospective mother, and pregnant women o the need to attend PMTCT regards their spouse dispositions. On the other hand, this study will enlighten the men on the need to discard the ancient beliefs which are not significant in the contemporary world. Hence encouraging them to always escort their wives to Antenatal services.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on cultural beliefs and gender dynamics of PMTCT services among pregnant women. Thus, the study will be carried out in Agbogugu community, Enugu State.


1.7. Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents.

In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed.

More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other schools, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Antenatal Care (ANC)

Antenatal care (ANC) is one of the core interventions for improving maternal outcomes.

ANC services enable early identification of pregnancy related risks and complications; and ensure access of services including health education, vaccines, diagnostic tests and treatments.

PMTCT:

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on cultural beliefs and gender dynamics of PMTCT services among pregnant women. Thus, the study will be carried out in Agbogugu community, Enugu State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on cultural beliefs and gender dynamics of PMTCT services among pregnant women. Thus, the study was carried out in Agbogugu community, Enugu State.The study is was specifically carried out to; determine if men often make decisions determining their wife’s participation in HIV testing; determine if men always receive negative attitudes from community members when escorting their spouses to the antenatal clinic, and determine if men who accompany their wives to ANC are perceived to be weaklings by their peers.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are married men and women in Agbogugu community, Enugu State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Men do not often make decisions determining their wife’s participation in HIV testing.
  2. Men always receive negative attitudes from community members when escorting their spouses to the antenatal clinic.
  3. Men who accompany their wives to ANC have been perceived to be weaklings by their peers.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. There is need for the involvement of the stakeholders in bridging the gap between knowledge and utilization of PMTCT services among women.
  2. A revised health education programme for pregnant women living with HIV should be implemented to enlighten women and mean on the need to utilize PMTCT services.
  3. Health personnel should always encourage husbands of women living with HIV to utilize PMTCT services to prevent mother to child transmission of the virus.
  4. Health personnel should avoid discrimination of women living with HIV and to show them positive attitude to that will encourage them to continue to utilize PMTCT services.
  5. The government should provide PMTCT centres in rural areas so as to provide access to PMTCT facilities to all, especially among women resident in rural areas. This will serve as an encouragement to rural pregnant women to utilize the PMTCT services.
  6. Government should implement the policy on penalizing those discriminating and stigmatizing people women living with HIV. This will encourage women to utilize PMTCT services without fear of discriminating and stigmatizing.
  7. Infant feeding counseling needs to be improved and access to portable water for formular feeding should be made available.

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