The Effectiveness Of Mandatory Monthly Environmental Sanitation Exercise In Ensuring A Clean And Safe Environment (A Case Study Of Akwa Ibom State)

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

The Effectiveness Of Mandatory Monthly Environmental Sanitation Exercise In Ensuring A Clean And Safe Environment (A Case Study Of Akwa Ibom State)


Abstract


The study investigated the effectiveness of mandatory monthly environmental sanitation exercise in ensuring a clean and safe environment (a case study of AkwaIbom state). Three objectives guided the study. The study answered three research questions and tested three null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted survey research design. The research was conducted in the South-South Zone of Nigeria. The population of the study was all the residents of Uyo, AkwaIbom state, Nigeria. The sample size was one hundred respondents; this was determined using Taro Yamane formula. The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire titled: the effectiveness of mandatory monthly environmental sanitation exercise in ensuring a clean and safe environment (a case study of AkwaIbom state) developed by the researcher from literature reviewed. Three experts in the field of measurement, evaluation and research validated the instrument. Descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while inferential statistics of Chi-square was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between education and environment; that there is a significant correlation between cleanliness and health. It also found out that there is a significant relationship between environmental sanitation and cleanliness and good human condition.

However, the study recommended that: Efforts should be made to reduce the challenges faced in the conduct of the monthly sanitation exercise; for instance, a supervisory term should be put in place to supervise the activities of the citizens during the environmental exercise, as well as punishment of culprits during the exercise; Government at all levels should strengthen the environmental agency to be more effective; and there should be proper orientation of the stakeholders on the need to maintain cleanliness.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Environmental sanitation is one of the widely known tools with significant contributions towards national development across the globe. It refers to efforts or activities aimed at developing and maintaining a clean, safe and pleasant physical environment in all human settlements. It includes the control of aspects of waste that may lead to the transmission of diseases. This encompasses not just excreta disposal and management, but also solid waste management, drainage and hygiene behaviour within living environments. Residents in cities with access to proper environmental sanitation have improved living conditions, enhanced health and well-being and economic productivity.

The concept of environmental sanitation entails the control of water supplies, excreta disposal, waste water disposal, refuse disposal, vectors of disease, housing conditions, food supplies and the safety of the working environment. In a simple parlance, environmental sanitation is the sum total of activities embarked upon by people to promote healthy living conditions. Mmom and Mmom opined that effective environmental sanitation in cities is a function of positive environmental behaviour and availability of facilities and services. This view is complimented by Daramola (2012), Afon and Faniran (2013) that availability of adequate environmental sanitation facilities and enabling environmental sanitation policies positively influence the achievement of a healthy living environment.

The quality of environment is essential for health of both adults and children. WHO (2013) affirmed that more than 2.4 billion people in the world currently lack access to adequate environmental sanitation and are forced to dispose their excreta in unimproved and unsanitary conditions. Majority of these people are found in Africa and other developing countries of the world. Ekong (2015) opined that environmental sanitation problems are responsible for about 30% of the burden of diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. Environmental sanitation problems are behavioural man-made environmental hazards which emanates from living environment. Disaster from environmental sanitation problems affects resident’s health, structure, environmental resources and national and household economic assets. These problems are made more acute in these parts of the world as a result of rapid urbanization and uncontrolled population growth, without commensurate expansion in sanitary facilities.

Environmental conditions are appalling in many Nigerian cities, the deplorable and dehumanizing conditions of physical environment calls for sober reflections from all stakeholders. The impacts of poor environmental sanitation situations are severe on Nigeria thus hindering and undermining its development. In Nigeria, adequate environmental sanitation has not been strictly adhered to. Its practices in the country are characterized by lack of basic amenities and poor sanitation behaviour thus having serious consequences for health on citizens. The living environment in the country is well polluted owing to social misdemeanour of citizens. These scenarios have in turn become a recipe for disaster in urban centres. It is on this note that this study seeks to examine the effectiveness of mandatory monthly environmental sanitation exercise in ensuring a clean and safe environment by using Akwa Ibom State as a case study.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The failure of the numerous efforts to address the problem of environmental sanitation has been attributed to various factors. Prominent among these are: unhealthy socio-cultural practices; poor Environmental Sanitation education and awareness; low literacy level; bad governance over the years; disregard for the rule of law and other forms of indiscipline (Agagu, 2009).

Waste management is at the lowest ebb in most towns and communities. Most parts of the city centres do not benefit from public waste disposal services and therefore, have to bury or burn their waste or dispose it haphazardly. In most cities like Uyo (the capital of Akwa Ibom State) and peri-urban centres, refuse heaps are left unattended and where the Government Authorities do the collection, it is often irregular and sporadic. The recycling of waste is negligible while methods of storage, collection, transportation, compaction and final disposal are very unsatisfactory (Ladan, 2015).

The alarming rate at which heaps of solid waste continue to occupy our cities, coupled with the fact that 87% of Nigerians use disposal methods adjudged as insanitary, has not only constituted visual blight and odour nuisance, but also encouraged the breeding of rodents, mosquitoes and other pests of public health importance, with attendant disease outbreaks (Oyekan & Sulyman, 2015).

Furthermore, some of the waste materials are toxic; others are either non-biodegradable or not readily degradable such as “pure water” sachets and polythene shopping bags (Akinro, 2012, et al,). Also included are various types of industrial/chemical waste that can contaminate soil and ground water sources if not properly disposed. Other major concern is the generation of waste from health care institutions/facilities, which contain infectious/hazardous materials that pose potential hazards to human and environmental health when improperly disposed. The improper handling and disposal of medical waste is a major threat to refuse collectors and scavengers and can result in infections such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, tetanus, excetera (WHO, 2017).


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to examine the effectiveness of mandatory monthly environmental sanitation exercise in ensuring a clean and safe environment by using Akwa Ibom State as a case study, but for the successful completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following specific objectives;

  1. To determine the impact of education on environmental sanitation.
  2. To understand the relationship between cleanness and health.
  3. To examine the contributions of environmental sanitation to cleanliness and good human condition in Akwa Ibom State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following are some of the questions which this study intends to answer:

  1. What is the impact of education on environmental sanitation?
  2. What is the relationship between cleanness’ and health?
  3. What are the contributions of environmental sanitation to cleanliness and good human condition in Akwa Ibom State?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following will be the research hypotheses to be tested for this study:

  1. There is no significant relationship between education and environmental.
  2. There is no significant correlation between cleanness and health.
  3. There is no significant relationship between environmental sanitation and cleanliness and good human condition.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study examines the effectiveness of mandatory monthly environmental sanitation exercise in ensuring a clean and safe environment by using Akwa Ibom State as a case study. Therefore, this study will help to identify ways of improving the environmental sanitation of not just the people of Akwa Ibom State alone but to all Nigerians as a whole. Another major importance of this study is that, it will help to explain clearly usefulness of environmental sanitation to the general populace.


1.7 Scope of Study

Although the researcher recognised other public health but limited this study to the selected state in Akwa Ibom State as a case study. This is because no researcher can treat all the services needs in the area with in the limited time and under a research of this type. It should be noted that all the contributing factors that hinders the researcher from carrying out the research work into detail include finance, attitude of the people to research work of this type based on their ignorance and lukewarm attitude to the importance of research findings.


1.8 Definition of Terms

The following operational words were used in this study;

Environmental:

Connected with the natural condition in which people animal and plants live connected with the environment. Connected with the condition that affects the behaviour and environmental influence e.g. an environmental health officer.

Sanitation:

The equipment and systems that keep places clean, especially by removing human waste disease resulting from poor sanitation.

Health:

State of well-being and the weather condition of people especially when used to perform a very simple task, not practical.

Environmental Sanitation:

The natural condition in which people animals and plants live connected with the environment. White sanitation is the equipment and systems that keep places clean, especially by removing human waste disease resulting from poor sanitation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

This study focused on the effectiveness of mandatory monthly environmental sanitation exercise in ensuring a clean and safe environment, a case study of AkwaIbom state. The study was set to address three research objectives.

The objectives which include:

  1. To determine the impact of education on environmental sanitation.
  2. To understand the relationship between cleanness’ and health.
  3. To examine the contributions of environmental sanitation to cleanliness and good human condition in AkwaIbom State.

Based on the above stated objectives and the study carried out, the following findings were made:

  1. That the impacts of education on environmental sanitation include that it will improve participation of people on environmental sanitation; it will improve the effect of the environmental sanitation; it will reduce the use of coercion and it will improve the level of willingness of the masses towards environmental sanitation.
  2. That there is a positive relationship between cleanliness and health.
  3. That contributions of environmental sanitation to cleanliness and good human conditions in AkwaIbom state include that it has improved the level of cleanliness; it have improved the level of good human conditions in the state; it has improved the level of awareness of the masses and it has helped in improving the influx of visitors to AkwaIbom state.

5.2 Conclusion

The main purpose of this study is to access the effectiveness of mandatory monthly environmental sanitation exercise in ensuring a clean and safe environment, a case study of AkwaIbom state. The study was set to address three research objectives.

In this study, a survey research design was adopted, the population comprises all residents of Uyo in AkwaIbom state, a simple random sampling technique was used to select 100 respondents for the study and a questionnaire was the instrument for data collection. Relevant literatures were reviewed which guided the objectives and methodology of this study. As result of the field study and analysis of results, the following findings were made:

  1. That the impacts of education on environmental sanitation include that it will improve participation of people on environmental sanitation; it will improve the effect of the environmental sanitation; it will reduce the use of coercion and it will improve the level of willingness of the masses towards environmental sanitation.
  2. That there is a positive relationship between cleanliness and health.
  3. That contributions of environmental sanitation to cleanliness and good human conditions in AkwaIbom state include that it has improved the level of cleanliness; it have improved the level of good human conditions in the state; it has improved the level of awareness of the masses and it has helped in improving the influx of visitors to AkwaIbom state.

5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made:

  1. Efforts should be made to reduce the challenges faced in the conduct of the monthly sanitation exercise; for instance, a supervisory term should be put in place to supervise the activities of the citizens during the environmental exercise, as well as punishment of culprits during the exercise.
  2. Government at all levels should strengthen the environmental agency to be more effective.
  3. There should be proper orientation of the stakeholders on the need to maintain cleanliness.

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