Job Prospects For Library And Information Science Graduates In Nigeria
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This project is dedicated to God Almighty for his mercies, and protection throughout my studies in Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri. Also I dedicate this work to my lovely parents Mr. and Mrs. Raymond Iregbu for their support and care.
I wish to reaffirm my most appreciation and gratitude to God Almighty who in his infinite mercy and love guided me throughout the journey of my Higher National Diploma [HND] academic pursuit in federal polytechnic Nekede, Owerri, may I express my profound gratitude to my able supervisor and also my HOD Dr UMUNNA. N. OPARA who constant vetting of this work.
I don’t really know how to thank you but may God Almighty bless you. It is with a very high since of love and respect that I want to express my gratitude to the following personalities Barr. E Oduagwu, Mr. E. Anyawu, Mr. D Oparaku, Miss Onu, Mr. E .Amadi, Mr. Enyia, mr. Chuma and Mr. OGB , you people are more than mentor to me.
My heartfelt gratitude goes to my parents Mr. and Mrs. Raymond Iregbu and my brothers and sisters, Mr. and Mrs. Ikechukwu Iregbu. Rev Dr E. Okwuonu, Chief and Lolo Ndukwe Godwill, Mr. Udoka Nwachukwu, I am not forgetting my Uncle and his family Mr. and Mrs. Boniface Iregbu, I specially thank all of you for your encouragement all this period I also thank Miss Victoria who typed this work and my friends Blessing, Chinwendu, Angela and others who stood by me, I am lacking words to express my feelings I love you all.
Job prospects in librarianship have been observed that not many graduates of Nigerian Universities apply to study library and Information science [LIS] in the first instance but as a last resort. This situation is unwholesome for the future of LIS profession in Nigeria.
The survey research design was adopted, with the career choice Influence, Questionnaire, as the main data collection Instrument.
A population of twenty (20) graduates responded to the questionnaires which were studied. A total of fifteen (15) related questions were used as data collection instrument.
This is to elicit some relevant information about the study. It was recommendable that all the questionnaires distributed were collected with maximum responses., one was able to know the degree of choice in librarianship aims the sexes, what motivated their choice in librarianship is conformity with their talent, abilities, aptitudes and general inclination also to know whether they will continue with librarianship as a profession and other places they will like to work as a librarian.
Table Of Contents
- Title page i
- Certificate page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iv
- Table of contents v
- Abstract vi
- Introduction 1
- 1.0 Background of the study 1
- 1.2 Scope of the study 5
- 1.3 Research question 6
- 1.1 Definition of terms 7
- Reference 9
- 2.0 Review Of Related Literature 10
- 2.1 INTRODUCTION 10
- 2.2 Job concept 10
- 2.3 Job prospects 12
- 2.3 Job Description 15
- 2.4 Job Qualification 17
- 2.5 Employment Opportunities 19
- 2.6 Factors affecting the career choice of graduates of library and information science in Nigeria. 25
- References 31
- 3.0 Research Methodology 33
- 3.1 Design of the study 33
- 3.2 Population of the study 34
- 3.3 Instrument of data collection 34
- 3.4 Validation of instrument 35
- 3.5 Procedure for data collection 35
- 3.6 Method of data analysis 35
- 4.0 Data analysis Interpretation, Discussion 36
- 4.1 Distribution and return of questionnaire 36
- 4.2 Discussion of Finding. 36
- 5.0 Conclusion, Summary Of Findings And Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary of Finding 45
- 5.2 Conclusion 48
- 5.4 Recommendation 49
- Appendix A
- Appendix B
Background To The Study
The library is a store house of information and information of life, for decision making, business. Effective planning, communication, research and advancement, and so we cannot do without it.
The developed countries of the world appreciate the role of information. To day Nigeria being a developing country has just realized the need for libraries as information store house and for this reason, there are today various type of libraries.
Public libraries, National libraries, school libraries Academic libraries, special libraries of Nigeria, each rendering information services to their different communities of users.
Libraries and librarianship have evolved overtime in Nigeria, However, they have not yet gained a proper place Institutions and possession in the country. In site of the rice knowledge and information resources available in libraries, librarianship is among the least sought after possessions in Nigeria (Okoro, 2009).
Generally speaking strong academic background breeds good career. Lawyers, Doctors, Engineers and Accounts are traditionally held in high esteem because they all demand solid academic background, However, there are some other profession that require advance education but never receiver due respect librarianship is a profession that is dedicated to serve the general public, providing timely and accurate information, thus contributing to the development of society,
Igbinosa (2007) maintained that people, particularly students, do not like to pursue a career in librarianship. They do not realize that librarians are unsung heroes behind the successful stories of students, researchers, medical doctor etc.
Graduates in library and information science are catering for the service and operations. The library has been accepted as an important profession librarian come together and interact with the Nigerian library Association (NLA) which for years has been the linkage through its Annual General meeting, conference, seminars, workshops and other activities both at National and state level. Despite all efforts of Nigerian library Association and the services of libraries and librarians, the graduates, has not attained its full development as other graduates like medical graduates, Engineering, legal and Nursing etc.
Both professional Librarians and students’ librarians feel inferior; thus leading to their Inability to stand and defend themselves and their profession in the face of other.
Library and Information science has been not recognized until only in (1995) that it became recognized by the federal Government of Nigeria through the promulgation of Nigerians (Registration,) etc Council of Nigeria Decree 12, 1995.
In spite of all these, Ogunseye (1984) pointed out graduates in library and information science has come to stay. They are accepted as academic discipline in our Universities librarians can now say we have arrived on the Nigerian library science. This saying “tell me how you live and I will tell you will die” is one that doctors like it makes the point that how we take our life can determine the illness we get and ultimately ailment will kill us.
As a matter of fact, this can be applied to the job prospects, having live a life studying library and Information Science for a specific number of years; this is particularly true of our choice of Job in Library and Information science owing to our abilities, performances, comprehensiveness.
As it is, the Longman Dictionary of contemporary English defends Job prospects. As job Opportunity with good chance of future success. An employee would therefore require being motivated to the fulfillment of his Job, jobs are design for people and not people for jobs man labour in order to gratify his physical. Social and psychological needs .The motivation itself is determined by factors such as Job Opportunities, according to Longman Dictionary English says that job prospects is a collection of the basis of consensus, co-operation and consensus to encourage her employees towards the attainment of the goals of such Organization.
According to Edeer (1973) job development programme typically include a wide variety of activities that concerned with informing employee or Organization of library policies and procedures, motivating the employee, evaluating performances of staff and providing counseling for them as needed in any library situation. The primary purpose of these activities is to develop employees who will gain a greater sense of interest satisfaction and adjustment in their work, job development therefore is the process that ranges from training employees in job skills, to assisting them in broader areas of personal and social adjustment in the interest of individual as well as transition.
EDEER (1973) has the view still that job development is deliberately broad to cover major process of managing the human resources dump their period the growth and peak productivity.
Handbook of special librarianship and Information work (1982) states “if the desire talent in staff to be realized then certain needs must be met, learn what his tasks are, he must understand the objectives and standard of achievement expected of him.
1.2 Scope Of The Study
The researcher at studying the job prospects among library and information science graduates in Nigeria, the study is restricted to graduates within Owerri to get their views on some of the job prospects among graduates.
The scopes of the study include of financial and limited time to carryout the research. Both graduates and librarians constituted my sample population, in the light of all these. The researcher is hard pressed to explore job prospects for graduates and librarian or library officer in Owerri.
The researcher has based this study under the following hypothesis.
That good condition of service motivates graduates for performance. Those attractive conditions of services for graduates in Nigeria are best means of tapping their professional skills,
1.3 Research Questions
This research question of this project is to X-ray the Job prospects among library and information science graduates in Nigeria.
- What motivated your choice of career?
- Are you satisfied with your job?
- What did you consider most in your choice of career?
- Why did you choose career in librarianship?
- Is your choice of librarianship in conformity with your talents, Abilities, Aptitude and general Inclination?
- What are the contributions of librarianship to your goals?
- Do you intend to continue with librarianship as a profession?
- In what library will you prefer to work as a librarian? Apart from working in the library which other place will you like to work?
- What is your level of Professional?
- What would you like to achieve in life?
- Are you satisfied with your job?
- In what library would you prefer to work as a librarian?
- What are the contributions of librarianship to your goal?
1.4 Definition Of The Terms
Job-job is pieces of work under taking for a fixed price.
This is the job Opportunity with good chances of future success; it is a collection of techniques adopted by an Organization on the basis of consensus to encourage her employees towards the attainment of the goals of such Organization.
library is a storehouse of Information and Information is very essential in every aspect of life for business, decision making and advancement.
This is a science that investigates the properties and behavior information, the force governing the flow of information and the means of processing information for Optimum accessibility and origination storage, retrieval, interpretation, and use of information.(provided from the conference of information scientists it is also the study of how information is transferred from the point of generation to the point of use and all the interpreting, storing, retrieving disseminating and transforming information.
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
- I hope I will do well enough to get an A.
You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.