Alternative Fundings And Sources Of The Sustainability Of Library Services In College Or Academic Libraries In Cross River State

Project and Seminar Material for Library and Information Science

Alternative Fundings And Sources Of The Sustainability Of Library Services In College Or Academic Libraries In Cross River State


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the alternative funding and sources of the sustainability of library services in college or academic libraries in Cross River state. The study was specifically set to identify the alternative sources of funding academic libraries in Cross River state, and ascertain how inadequate funding affect the sustainability of library services in academic libraries in Cross River state, and determine the extent alternative sources of funding can contribute to the sustainability of library services in academic libraries in Cross River state. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of librarians in Federal College of Education, Obudu, and Cross River State College of Education, Akampa. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 86 respondents and all were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and percentage, while the hypotheses was tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the alternative sources of funding academic libraries in Cross River state includes; Internally generated revenue (IGR), library development levy (LDL), TETfund, Public-Private Partnership, grants donation, and endowment fund. Furthermore, the study showed that the alternative sources of funding can contribute(to a high extent) to the sustainability of library services in academic libraries in Cross River state.. The study recommends that academic institutions should organize appeal fund launchings for the purpose of developing and sustaining their library services. This should involve important individuals, alumnus of the institutions and corporate bodies in the community. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Academic libraries are those associated with universities, polytechnics, colleges of education, and other comparable higher learning institutions. The significance of finance in delivering high-quality library services and sustainability of the libraries cannot be overstated. It is the glue that keeps the library’s facility, collection, and employees together and allows it to achieve its mission (Etuk, 2015). As such, money might be seen as the library’s soul. Any library’s efficacy is hampered by a lack of money (Anafulu, 1997).

It is critical for a library to have the resources necessary to achieve its objectives. Beautiful architecture, well-trained employees, and cutting-edge information storage and retrieval technology can only be appreciated if users receive exceptional service. These services cannot be delivered unless appropriate funds are available. According to Enyi, (2001), libraries of all types require funding. The quantity of financing received by a library has a direct impact on the quality of its services. While the majority of library financing comes from state and local sources, federal money is crucial in providing libraries around the country with the financial support they require to serve their communities (Ayo-Sobowale, & Akinyemi, 2011).

The existing economic realities in Nigeria indicate that the parent organizations of libraries cannot fund them solely. Government officials, scholars, economic experts, and others have made this basic fact known to school officials in a variety of ways and on a variety of times. As a result, some of them have begun on a variety of traditional strategies to create internal revenue to complement government subsidies and subventions. Etuk, (2015) opined that these strategies or sources have not rescued the universities from the challenge of under funding and its accompanying repercussions. The necessity to hunt out for alternate funding sources has now become vital.

Alternative Sources of financing refers to individuals, groups, places/areas, paths or ways of obtaining or creating finance other than the popular traditional approaches to support academic libraries (Enyi, 2001). The sources require rigorous planning and methods targeted at acquiring large income from certain persons or group(s) of people or activities. In reality, alternative sources of fund are fresh and inventive sources of revenue. Ezeuwa, (2009) observed that many countries of the globe, especially the advanced ones, do not depend on the Government for their funding. They utilize alternate sources in addition to the standard sources. In most situations, the conventional sources account for lesser percentage of their entire revenue.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

There is no question that tertiary institutions in Cross River State have faced unique problems and limits in terms of funding for successful management of the school. Students in Nigeria’s post secondary schools suffer poor study environment due to overcrowded classrooms and dorms, inadequate library and laboratory buildings, and deteriorating infrastructure. In the new century, the administration of tertiary institutions faces a severe state of uncertainty; there is a tremendous lot of pressure to meet a variety of performance standards in a context of student performance, staff development, and financial accountability (Ayo-Sobowale, & Akinyemi, 2011).

Inadequate financing has put tertiary institutions libraries under a lot of pressure and stress (Nwiyi, 2016). The alternative funding from internal produced income notion, on the other hand, suggests that the government does not have to assume the obligations for providing money for all of its institutions across all spending categories (Obasi, & Asodike, 2007). As a result, tertiary institutions are pushed to look for methods to generate more funds locally and regard it as a supplement to government monies in order to properly administer the institutions and fulfill their lofty goals.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main study objective is to examine the alternative funding and sources of the sustainability of library services in college or academic libraries in Cross River state.

While the specific objectives of the study include;

  1. Identify the alternative sources of funding academic libraries in Cross River state.
  2. Ascertain how inadequate funding affect the sustainability of library services in academic libraries in Cross River state.
  3. Determine the extent alternative sources of funding can contribute to the sustainability of library services in academic libraries in Cross River state.
  4. Identify the factors contributing to under-funding college libraries in Cross River state.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What are the alternative sources of funding academic libraries in Cross River state?
  2. How does inadequate funding affect the sustainability of library services in academic libraries in Cross River state?
  3. To extent can alternative sources of funding contribute to the sustainability of library services in academic libraries in Cross River state?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Alternative sources of funding can not contribute to the sustainability of library services in academic libraries.
  • Ha: Alternative sources of funding can contribute to the sustainability of library services in academic libraries.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be of great significance to the education sector as the findings of this study will show how beneficial funding is to the academic libraries in Nigeria. It will also be beneficial to the administrators of Nigerian academic libraries as this study will reveal sources of alternative funding for their academic libraries.

Finally, this study will serve as an existing material for further research and future references.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will be focused on the alternative funding and sources of the sustainability of library services in college or academic libraries in Cross River state. The study will be carried out in selected college libraries in Cross River states.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Library:

A library is essentially a service-oriented institution, which serves the needs of its varied clientele.

Funding:

The act of providing money for a particular purpose.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the alternative funding and sources of the sustainability of library services in college or academic libraries in Cross River state. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the alternative funding and sources of the sustainability of library services in college or academic libraries in Cross River state. The study was specifically set to identify the alternative sources of funding academic libraries in Cross River state, and ascertain how inadequate funding affect the sustainability of library services in academic libraries in Cross River state, and determine the extent alternative sources of funding can contribute to the sustainability of library services in academic libraries in Cross River state.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 86 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are librarians in Federal College of Education, Obudu, and Cross River State College of Education, Akampa.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The alternative sources of funding academic libraries in Cross River state includes; Internally generated revenue (IGR), library development levy (LDL), TETfund, Public-Private Partnership, grants donation, and endowment fund.
  2. Inadequate funding affect the provision of academic library service in college libraries in Cross River state as it results to acute shortage of current and relevant collections, security issues, poor maintenance of library facilities, poor staff development, and Poor adoption of ICT facilities.
  3. The alternative sources of funding can contribute(to a high extent) to the sustainability of library services in academic libraries in Cross River state.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the conclusion drawn, the following recommendations were made:

  1. Academic libraries should explore alternatives to funding their services other than depending on funds from their parent institutions.
  2. Academic libraries should apply for grants from reputable foundations to develop their services. Examples of these foundations are: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Jim Ovia Foundation, Aliko Dangote Foundation and many others.
  3. Academic institutions should organize appeal fund launchings for the purpose of developing their library services. This should involve important individuals, alumnus of the institutions and corporate bodies in the community.
  4. Academic institutions should value the importance of libraries in uplifting the standard of education in the society and allocate more funds (at least 10%) for development of library services from their budgets.
  5. The Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) should amend the TETFund laws to allow monotechnics, research institutes and public libraries benefit from the fund.
  6. Library management should introduce fees for some of its services, such as access to databases, request for gray literature etc.

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