The Impact Of Scientific And Technological Development On The Communication Industry In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Orient Television In Owerri)

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

The Impact Of Scientific And Technological Development On The Communication Industry In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Orient Television In Owerri)


The development of communication is essential on the efficient functioning of any government and its citizenry. Communication includes all the services by which information is acquired, passed on, exchanged and stored.

This research work takes a look at the rate of development of the communication industry in Nigeria as a result of the increasing development in the area of science and technology.

Chapter one is the introductory part of this project and it also dwells on the background of the study.

Chapter two reviews the literature of other writers and elaborates more on the interview.

Chapter three dwells on the methodologies used in the research work.

Chapter four is based on the data collection and also the discussion of the result gotten.

Finally, chapter five shows the summary of the entire research work as well as recommendations of areas of further study I the field of communication.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background of study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research question and hypothesis
  • 1.5 Scope and limitation of study
  • 1.6 Definition of terms/concept

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 The history of broadcasting in Nigeria
  • 2.3 Technological development of the communication industry in Nigeria
  • 2.4 Limitations of the communication industry in Nigeria.
  • 2.5 The modern mass communication

Chapter Three:


  • 3.1 Research design
  • 3.2 Area of study
  • 3.3 Samples and sampling procedures
  • 3.4 Sources of data
  • 3.5 Instrument for data collection
  • 3.6 Validity and Reliability of instrument
  • 3.7 Administration of the instrument
  • 3.8 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation And Analysis

  • 4.1 Questionnaire Distribution and Return
  • 4.2 Results
  • 4.3 Discussion

Chapter Five:

Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix I
  • Appendix II

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Science is a systematic knowledge of natural and physical phenomena which explores truth by observation, experiments and conclusions. The origin of since date as far back as days of the early man whose accidentally discoveries of fire triggered off the curiosity on man. The national pattern of the day and night, its relationship with movement of the sun, moon, stars, seasons of the year etc is some of the natural phenomena that captured the family of the early man. This crave for knowledge became the driving force behind the growth of science.

The evolution of scientific methods of enquiry gradually began to unrated the mysteries surrounding these natural phenomena and at the same time providing answer to man’s quest for improved environment status. Around the 15th-18th centuries, there was this radical scientific revolution. This was a great step towards the attempt by man to conquer his environment.

Application of science in technology

The learner’s encyclopedia defines technology to be the utilization of scientific knowledge to arrive at a system of production which involved the technical, engineering, managerial, administrative, marketing and consuming aspects of the economy.

This is to say that armed with the knowledge of early and recent scientific discoveries, man has continued to churn out new technological inventions, some of which would have mystical the early scientist.

Since therefore, is the core foundation of technology. Examples abound of application of scientific knowledge to technological inventions.

  1. The early man’s discovery of fire by striking two stones is today applied in the production of cigarette lighter.
  2. The law of floatation and up thrust by Archimedes is applied in the designing and building if ships and submarines.
  3. Newton’s laws o motion is applied in the manufacture of automobiles etc.
  4. The knowledge of projectiles is utilized in launching missiles, bullets, rockets and even in sports (short-put and javelin).

Application of science and technology in communication Okunna (1999) “communication basically means sharing ideals, information, opinions or experience between people”. It can be intra-personal (within oneself), inter-personal (between two or more people), or mass (involving large number of people), or mass (involving large number of people). Even since science and technology invaded the communication industry, communication has become simpler.

It is now easy to pass on information in seconds between person separated by million of kilometers. Scientific and technological developments in communication have been very pronounced. Technological ingenuity has produced the telegraph, telephone, radio, television, newspapers and even books.

However, these mass media as they are known today have developed over a number of centuries.

The evolution of modern communication

Gradually, the first humans began to communicate through petrography drawn on walls of caves or on tress or stones. These message reflected prehistoric people’s conception of their life and environment.

Pictographs were thus the earliest form of written communication with time. These pictographs revolve into symbols which became increasingly stylized until they are developed into alphabets.

This marked the beginning of recorded history (Britler 1989). This was followed by the development of incorglyphic writing by the Egyptians in 3100 BC. The stage was therefore set for emergence of the fore-runner of the modern print media.


The first book “the book of the dead”, was written in Egypt in 1580 BC (Sandma et al, 1976) but for a long time books did not actually became “a mass” medium they were hand copied.

They were in very short supply and very expensive. This situation however changed drastically when in 1450, a Johana Gutenberg of Mainz, Germany invented a metal movable type. This breaks through in technology, revolutionaries the art of printing and ushered in the European age of printing when the famous Gutenberg bible was printed.


Chronologically, books were quickly followed by newspapers. The earliest publication that could be called the fore-runner of the modern newspaper appeared in china in 500 AD. It satisfied the literacy class who yearned for news rather than books.

Electronics- radio

Although the principle of the motion, picture was discovered in the 19th century, the 20th century signaled the era of the electronic communication. It was in this century that the principle developed into motion picture when the ability to capture movement and sound on film (Bittner 1989).

Radio on the other and owns its origin to the perfection of wireless transmission. According to Bittner, just as 20th century download, a system was perfected by which electromagnetic impulses could be sent through the air without wires carrying voice transmissions over long distances. The new invention was to become “radio”.


The television came into existence in 1920’s, though their roots were discovered in the 19th century. The beginning of modern television technique and the basis of television transmission was the “Iconoscope”. This device was invented in 1923. The iconoscope tube used electrons to detect and transmit pictures instantly and its invention transformed TV into an electronic medium. Before then, television depends on the mechanical reproduction of visual images.

Thus, the communication industry has really come along way. Today the industry can boast of highly by sophisticated technological equipments found in telephone, radio, newspapers, magazine, email, etc. all forming a complex web of global communication. By their powers combined the world as a whole has been “Reduced” into global village.

1.2 Statement Of Research Problem

The impact of scientific and technological development on the communication industry in developed nation today is really applicable but can same be said of its developing counterparts like Nigeria. The high level of information technology (Info tech) in the world today has earned this era the name “the information technology”. Has Nigeria come of this age?

As this study looks into how far Nigeria has gone in adapting to the level of technological advancement. In the communication industry today, the following problems became so glaring.

1) Noise:

this is a factor to be considered as a problem in communication industry in Nigeria scholars agreed that noise is anything that interferes with the delivery of a message.

2) Poor / bad network:

this has been a problem to the communication industry at large and television stations in particular despite the scientific and technological development.

3) Fund:

the communication industry in Nigeria lacks the fund needed to buy new gadgets.

1.3 Objective Of Study

Having identified the research problems of the study, the following are therefore what the study aims to achieve at the end of it all

  1. To find out how technological development improved the communication industry in Nigeria.
  2. To find out how aware Nigerians information gadgets available in the world today.
  3. To find out how much attention does science and technology received from the Nigeria government.

1.4 Research Question

This research work is geared towards finding answers to the following research questions:

  1. How far has technological development improved the communication industry in Nigeria?
  2. How aware are Nigerians on information and communication gadgets available in the world today?
  3. How much attention does science and technology receive from the Nigerian government?

1.5 Hypotheses

  1. H1: Science and technology has improved the communication industry in Nigeria.
    HO: Science and technology has not improved the communication industry in Nigeria.
  2. H2: The Nigerian media consumers are aware of information and communication gadgets available in the world today.
    Ho: The Nigerian media consumers are not aware of information and communication gadgets available in the world today.
  3. H3: Science and technology receive attention from the Nigeria government.
    H0: Science and technology does not receive attention from the Nigeria government.

1.6 Scope And Limitation Of Study

This research work covers the history of mass communication in Nigeria in general and the Orient station in Owerri in particular. For the fact that one cannot have a survey of Nigeria in this kind of research work because of the vastness and nature of the country. I have to limit the study to a manageable size using only the media houses in Owerri to determine the level of technological advancement in communication industry in Nigeria.

We focus mainly on the broadcast media, to determine whether the media houses are adapting to the technological advancement. Therefore, the study is not a survey of all the development in the communication industry in Nigeria, but the role of scientific and technological development on the communication industry in Nigeria.

There are so many limitations that are bound in the course of this study.

  1. Time within which to obtain adequate information is quite limited as a student studying other courses; the time frame allocated to the study is therefore divided for other courses.
  2. Inadequate fund was also one of the major problems for this reason, movement to other television stations where restricted.
  3. Information from television stations where restricted due to protocol in the television station but despite all these limitations, this research work finally became a success.

1.7 Definition Of Terms / Concept

The definitions of the key words are:

Operational Definition Of Impact:

This means the negative or positive effect that something has over another.

Conceptual Definition Of Impact:

It is the powerful effect that something has on somebody or another thing.

Operational Definition Of Scientific:

Relating to systematic knowledge of how to enhance communication, obtained by observation and experiment.

Conceptual Definition Of Scientific:

Pertaining to knowledge ascertained by observation and experiment, critically tested, systematized ad brought under general principle.

Operational Definition Of Technology:

Application of the systematic knowledge of improved communication to produce gadgets and equipments that actually improve communication.

Conceptual Definition Of Technology:

Pertaining to the practice of any or all the applied science that has practical value and or industrial use.

Operational Definition Of Development:

The improvement in the acquisition and application of systematic knowledge of enhancing communication.

Conceptual Definition Of Development:

The act or process of bringing to a more advanced or more highly organized state.

Operational Definition Of Communication:

The field of information dissemination both intra-personal and inter-personal and mass level.

Conceptual Definition Of Communication:

This is an act of succeeding in conveying one meaning into another.

Chapter Five

Summary Of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendations

5.0 Summary Of Findings

Science is the basis of technological development and in effect has provided the impetus in setting up different industrial projects at both small and large scale platforms. Like in every other aspect of social living, scientific and technological developments in communication have been very pronounced. This is true of the developed nations because of the nature of their developed economy. Indeed, there are severe obstacles to full technological inventions.

It is however; quite obvious that Nigeria has witnessed a lot of improvement in the communication industry since the days of the early press. Te colonial period brought with it the first means of mass communication on Nigeria, the newspaper, this becomes a major stock in trade at that time and production increased by the intrusion of many publishers into the business, and this brought further development of the printing technology in the country.

5.1 Conclusion

The early 20th century saw the emergence of the broadcast technology of radio and television. Like the print media, these soon became widely accepted, aided by political tussle, the broadcast media spread to all parts of the country. Ever since the introduction of these media, they have undergone different levels of technological development adapting to new and more efficient techniques in information dissemination for improved quality, though the adoption is ever so slow.

To adapt at a faster pave to latest technology, it is important that we pay closer attention to the development of science and technology in Nigeria. We have many communication gadgets around us but there is no man-power to produce these gadgets and carry out repairs on them when faulty. We are still engrossed in importation of gadgets, component parts and sometimes personnel to install and repair them.

There is the need to establish skill acquisition centers and equip the media industries properly this would enhance the general skill acquisition strategy that will help stimulate and monitor technological development.

5.3 Recommendations

The following recommendations are necessary as it relates to this research work and this we think will enhance the scientific and technological development of the communication industry in Nigeria.

  1. Since the development of the communication industry (the media) is highly dependent on the development of science and technology which are still under-developed. We recommend for further study: “The need form the development of science and technology in Nigeria”.
  2. We also suggest that researchers in this area of study (discipline) should take up a research topic on “Satellite television as a threat to the local media viewership”.
  3. Nigerian government needs to increase the budgetary allocation with 20% to the communication industries in Nigeria and also to science and technology.
  4. There should be boost in the training and retraining of staff of the industry to enable them to be well equipped in new technologies.

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