Audience Perception Of The Effectiveness Of Television Programmes In Child Development And Upbringing (A Case Study Of Umuahia South L.G.A, Abia State)

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Audience Perception Of The Effectiveness Of Television Programmes In Child Development And Upbringing (A Case Study Of Umuahia South L.G.A, Abia State)


The impact of television programme in child upbringing and development is that which cannot be exhausted in this study. The implication being that television plays a major role in human development which child is a partaker of at one time or another through its programme provisions.

The programme Junior Mail Bag in B.C.A TV is one of such programmes which is designed to enable the viewer perceive his environment in manner that entails understanding and control in knowledge of what take place around his immediate environment by providing for the viewer, information that are educational, entertaining, culture friendly etc.

The research design used in the work is survey method. The questionnaires and oral interview were used to generate data from respondents. The respondents sampled in this study were 120 subjects, out population of 1,200 people.

The finding from the research work was that sufficient positive value was derived from the programme, which the programme schedule and timing were appropriate for its viewership and also that it is a good source of educational and entertaining programme for children and even adults.

The study concludes that the programme is effect. It recommended that further studies be carried out to develop more programmes that will have value to the child. It recommends that more funds be provided for the programme in order to enable award winners and that anniversaries be held in honor of the programme personalities of the children or the programme history and also that curriculum planner be incorporated in television media programmes.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background of study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Definitions of terms

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 History of television
  • 2.3 The role and effect of television on child upbringing and development
  • 2.4 The negative and positive effect of television programmes on the child development and upbringing
  • 2.5 Theoretical framework

Chapter Three:


  • 3.1 Research design
  • 3.2 Area of study
  • 3.3 Population of study
  • 3.4 Sample and samples procedure
  • 3.5 Sources of data
  • 3.6 Instrument for data collection
  • 3.7 Validity of instrument
  • 3.8 Administration of instrument
  • 3.9 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Demographic data
  • 4.2 Data from research question
  • 4.3 Data analysis (Discussion on findings)

Chapter Five:

Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary of major findings
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaires

Chapter One


1.1 Background Of Study

Issues of human existence revolve round the quest human wants and needs. One of those needs is to have contacts with mans immediate environment and the world in general to satisfy.

Television as a medium of mass is that which from the time of its inception in the 1950s has been with the sole aim of enabling human beings satisfy the quest through its various programme provisions. Television has been described as the “feature of life”. UNESCO (1981: pg 11).

This is because by filling the gap of their activities, it keep them at alert by making them conscious of their immediate environment. It gives the audience the opportunity to view events as they occur in real life situation as they see it on the screen. Television uses gesticulation to give better understanding of events and happenings by presenting real life events in dramatic form. This is achieved by television programmes.

Television as a medium of mass communication is basically designed to reach a mass audience who are heterogynous in nature through its diverse programmes. The programmes are designed to suit the expectation of the target audience. The television as a medium has attracted criticism from scholars around the globe who believe that its centres more on the negative aspects of societal norms and values. This assumption has given rise to desperate opinion about the effect of television broadcast on its viewers.

Television as a medium makes effective use of two means of communication which are: Audio and visual otherwise known as sound and sight. The process has the ability of affecting the viewer when such programmes are designed for. Look et al (1957) highlight the creation of sesame, a children’s programme designed to enable those of them between the ages of 3-5 years of age who never attended pre-school to learn through the television. The programme was designed after the research by Juan Game Cooney revealing that 80% of 3-4 years old and 25% of 5 years old in the United States did not attend any form of preschool. Children from financially disadvantaged homes were far less likely to attend preschool, these children stay back to do something else.

What did they do? Cooney knew that children watch television and also that existing programmes does not impact on the children educationally. Ball Bogart, opens by explaining Cooney research “Her idea was to use an interesting existing visually and orally estimating television show as an explicitly educational tool to promote the intellectual and cultural growth of preschoolers and to teach children how to think as well as what to think”.

This is also the issue with B.C.A which has the mandate from its inception in 1991 to organize and broadcast programmes typical of all stations but in accordance with both the state and public interest. The B.C.A TV programmes “Junior mail Bag” is no doubt one of the television programmes designed for child development which helps in their upbringing educationally, information ally and it entertains and also widens their horizon. It was actually conceived to positively develop the attitudes, thoughts and actions of children who watch the program and those they come in contact with.

1.2 Statement Of Research Problem

Most third world countries like Nigeria are faced with economic problems which make many parents financially unfits to send their little children to school. These parents are more concerned with bringing food on the table as most of them are peasants who know little or nothing about kiddie’s education.

With this issue in mind they find it difficult to send their children to school and the kid (s) are left uneducated. This makes the children to lack behind and they find it difficult to interact with their fellow children because children easily do what they are taught. But today in the society television has made it possible for growing children to learn by offering them educational programs that does not only instruct but educate them just like the B.C.A TV Junior mail bag.

This problem of either going to a preschool has been lifted the coming of the TV programs now a child can learn at home. This study tends to tackle the problem of television viewership and the problems limiting children (the viewer) access to television. And also a possible means to be utilized so as to make the message of television to reach its target audience.

1.3 Purpose Of The Study (Objectives)

The general purpose of this research study is to investigate the impact of television broadcasting has on children as a specific group of viewers through their various programs provisions, their aims and objectives and the level of response generated from the stimulus it elicits on these viewers. It studies junior mail bag, a B.C.A TV program to:

  1. To find out the program objectives
  2. To assess the effectiveness of the program on the behavior of the children.
  3. To evaluate the social implication of the program content, (junior mail bag)
  4. To offer recommendation based on the findings

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the objectives of the program?
  2. How effective is the program on the behavior of children?
  3. What is the social evaluation of the program content (junior mail bag)?
  4. What are the recommendations based on the findings?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

Few programs are usually produced to serve the educational and information needs of the people. Even among the programs, few hardly get near or produce the kind of value as those found in other developing countries and developed countries of the world.

Most scholars and observers are of the belief that increased and positive presentation of educational reservoirs for children will best develop them. The findings of this study will be of immense benefit to producers of television programs that suit the taste of children’s own kind of program.

It will also reveal the importance of TV educational programs such as junior mail bag in the development of healthy attitude and its role in improving social interaction and development.

The findings of this work equally benefit mangers of broadcast stations in making their children program more interesting enough to attract advertiser for sponsorship which will in turn yield advertisement income in their stations.

1.6 Scope Of The Study

The choice of schools used for this study was limited to Community primary school Umuahia South L.G.A of Abia State and the participant audience of junior mail bag. Also the poverty of data and other research materials in the schools and public libraries also has delimitating effect on the quality of the research output.

1.7 Definition Of Important Terms

The following terms are for the sake of clarity, defined within the context of the research:

Conceptual Definition
a) Impact:

This is the powerful effect that something has on something or somebody.

b) Educational Television:

This refers to the process of learning something as well as amusing you, through a piece of electrical equipment with a screen.

c) Behaviors:

This refers to a way that children behaves or acts especially towards other children.

d) Education:

This is a process of teaching and learning, especially in schools or colleges to improve knowledge and develop skills.

e) Television:

This is the piece of electrical equipment with a screen on which you can watch programs with moving pictures with sounds.

f) Child development:

This is the gradual growth of a young human who is not yet more advanced or stronger etc.

Operational Definition
A) Junior mail Bag:

A.B.C Television programme designed to positively develop the mental capability, attitudes and actions of children with help in upbringing them. As the name implies, it is a writing program whereby children write in their questions down from various subjects such as current affairs, history, attitudes, manners and music etc. Here questions are written by children within Umuahia South L.G.A, and its environs and the questions are also answered by their fellow children in the studio who act as moderators.

B) B.C.A:

Broadcasting Corporation of Abia state, and electronic media organization established and founded by the government of Abia state. It operates a television station that transmits on VHF channel 22 and FM radio station of 88.1 mega hertz. The organization was formed from the period of the states creation in 1991.

C) Impact:

This is the moral lesson children derive from watching television programs.

D) Educational Television:

This is a process of acquiring knowledge through television either in the house or classroom.

E) Behavior:

This is the way children react to the information gotten from watching television programs.

F) Education:

This is a way of impacting and instructing children and young people in schools, primary, preprimary and junior secondary school classes designed to give knowledge and develop skills through television programs.

G) Television:

This is a piece of electrical equipment with a glass screen which shows broadcast programs with moving pictures and sounds which children watch and acquire knowledge.

Chapter Five

Summary Of Findings, Conclusions And Recommendations

5.1 Summary Of Findings

This research is on the Audience Perception of the effectiveness of television programme in child development and upbringing (A case study of Umuahia South L.G.A, Abia State).

The survey method was used in this work to generate data through questionnaire and also personal interview. 120 subjects from the 1,200 entire populations were selected for the study. Finding in the study showed that the programme junior mail bag is an educational programme for children and that it is socialization and educationally inclined in nature.

Secondly, it is revealed that a sufficient positive value was derived from the programme. Also it was revealed that the schedule and duration of the programme were appropriate for its viewership and there should be increased supply of power to enhance message of all kinds to reach its target audience to gain effectiveness.

5.2 Conclusion

Based on data and findings, the programme Junior Mail Bag TV programme has been seen at limelight as a favorable children’s programme which impact positively on them through its content. The initial suspicious rose on pro-social impact and effective of the programmes success.

Conclusively, one can therefore say that Junior Mail Bag TV programme has fulfilled its main objective of being on air for the target audience that is children and affecting the lives of children who watch it positively through its benefits.

5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusion, it is recommended that;

  1. Further studies should be embarked upon to develop more programmes that will have value to the children. So, programme producers should endeavour to create programmes as this will encourage children in their academic and also distract them from other activities that will not be of positive interest to them.
  2. It is also recommended that more funds should be provided for the programme in order to enable award winners anniversaries held in honour of the programme personalities of the children in the programme history.
  3. There is need to incorporate curriculum planner in television media programme.(Azubine1994;pg150)posit thus; There is organized educational programmes established by school authorities and jointly produced by them and the owners of electronic media for the instruction of children, it should be directly related to school curriculum and contained in school syllabus.

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