# Design And Implementation Of Simple Scientific Calculator

## Abstract

This work was centered on the Design and implementation of a simple scientific calculator for education organization. The study traced calculator system as a tool to completely change mathematical knowledge and sophisticated problems solving strategies had advanced the field of simulated engine in mathematic.

This project work also focused principally on numbers and arithmetic operation. This researcher investigated the manual system in detail with a view to finding out the need to automate the system.

Interestingly, the end result of simple calculator system was its ability to process number and operators, and provides a useful result.

Therefore, this project will help immensely in the following way. Easy calculating of tedious mathematical problems, easy to retrieval of errors and it will also be of a good assistance to any researcher on these topics.

## Table of Contents

### Chapter One

#### Introduction

- 1.1 Statement of the problem
- 1.2 Purpose of the study
- 1.3 Aims of the study
- 1.4 Scope of the study
- 1.5 The limitation
- 1.6 The assumption
- 1.7 Definition

### Chapter Two

#### Literature Review

### Chapter Three

#### Description and Analysis of Existing System

- 3.1 Facts finding methods
- 3.2 Objectives of the existing system
- 3.3 Input process and output analysis
- 3.4 Problem of existing system
- 3.5 Justification of the new system

### Chapter Four

#### Design of the New System

- 4.1 Output specification and design
- 4.2 File design
- 4.3 Procedure design
- 4.4 System flowchart
- 4.5 System requirement

### Chapter Five

#### Implementation

- 5.1 Program design
- 5.2 Program flowchart
- 5.3 Pseudo code
- 5.4 Program code
- 5.5 Test run

### Chapter Six

#### Documentation

- 6.1 User guide
- 6.2 Module and procedure
- 6.3 User specification

### Chapter Seven

#### Conclusion And Recommendation

- 7.1 Conclusion
- 7.2 Recommendation
- Bibliography

## Chapter One

### Introduction

Ever since, tedious mathematical problems in the organization is not a simple one, that is to say, the process can be said to involve a lot of procedures or protocols which ranges from insertion of figures for tedious calculation, processing of numbers and retrieval of errors. However, because of this, there is the need to accomplish an extensive research to discover the intricacies involved in the entire process. So the researcher decided to embark on this work design and implementation of a simple scientific calculator.

Computer have gone from being fantasies of science, fiction of realities of everyday life, especially in the offices, school (educational organization). This work is a research aimed at solving the above problem. When this system actualizes, it would be received of solving tedious calculations and sophisticated mathematical problems.

#### 1.1 Statement of the Problem

In computation of numbers, there ties several kinds of problems in solving tedious arithmetic operation with simple calculator. Having been facing a lot of general problems, the problem identified below relate to computation of numbers:-

- Low and slow speed of the calculator
- Inappropriate representation of data
- Loss of figure in computation of higher numbers
- Inability of handling complex arithmetic operation
- The processing of numbers are in binary coded decimal(BCD)

To check these problems in computation of numbers solution such as

- Introducing a standard scientific modules into the entire system to perform tedious arithmetic operation.
- Apply logic and algorithms simulation to the system
- Introducing scientific calculator that will operate in the correct order rather than four function calculators
- Checking overhauling of the system that are deemed incompetent

#### 1.2 Purpose of the Study

Since it is time saying that there is no smoke without fire ,the effort to carry out the research was not first conceived. To particularilize the matter and concept ‘what a calculator can do in solving tedious problems and how it is done? There is serious need for this study.

In view of the aforementioned problems inherent in the design of the simple scientific calculator, the purpose of the study is to provide on overview of the simple design calculator.

Another purpose is to change the processing number from binary coded decimal (BCD) to ASCLL coded which is better and familiar with today computer processing. The format 12H2- cannot be used in the design again, this means that it will not be controlled by a hardware state machine.

Finally, the purpose of this work is to improve the speed of the simple calculator in such a way that it will maximize the hardware needed and reduce the cost and complexity of the machine. This will help us to enjoy the anticipated high speed of our calculator.

#### 1.3 Aims and Objectives

This product will be tested based on the following objectives:-

- To examine the current procedures employed in computer with regard to the calculator.
- To improve the speed of then simple calculator in such a way that it will reduce complexity in solving with simple calculator.
- To design a simple calculator that ensure timely processing
- To design a calculator that will change the processing number to ASCLL code.
- And finally, to reduce the problems immensely and provides a release working environment.

#### 1.4 Scope of the Study

The process covers only of two approaches used in producing the simple calculator which are logic simulation and algorithm simulation due to the fact that it is difficult to develop a scientific simple calculator that will calculate every existing calculation in all field of study, this research has been limited to arithmetic operation calculation.

The study also involves the visual basic programminjg language for the writing and running of the source code or program. The brief description on processed data in equally included.

#### 1.5 Assumption

The project will be designed and implemented based on the following assumption.

- That the use visual basic programming language will make the program to run on any computer.
- That the project will ensure timely and accurate processing in computer.
- That the speed of the computer will improve after the implementation of the anticipated simple scientific calculator.

Finally, having done this that the facts and figures manipulated are reliable, the designed software to run primarily.

#### 1.6 Definition of Terms

##### BCD:

Binary Code Decimal

##### Calculator:

A small electronic device or machine for calculating numbers.

##### ASCII:

American Standard Code for Information Interchange computer. An electronic device that work under the control of stored program, automatically accepting , storing and processing data to produce information that is the result of the processing.

##### Arithmetic Shifts:

Moving bits in registers either left or right in order to multiple or divide.

##### Hardware:

The physical elements of the computer together with the attachment of those device used with the computer.

##### Machine:

A device used in performing tasking

##### Processing:

An execution of program in a computer machine.

##### Software:

Sets of related instruction to perform a specific task.

## Chapter Seven

### Conclusion and Recommendation

#### 7.1 Recommendation

Without shadow of doubt, much light has been sheed on the design and implementation of a simple scientific calculator for arithmetic and other simple calculator.

It has therefore been proved that a well programmed and simulated scientific calculator can calculator better and faster than the first generation type of calculator. Therefore users that specialize in calculator for their work. This calculator as a system is generally recommended in areas where there are mathematics including scientist etc. since the benefits and potentials of computer in mathematics and science have not yet been fully explored, especially in Nigeria, a service wide education compaign should be organized to instruct mathematician and scientists as to the potential of computer is our educational organizations.

Government should help in this aspect. They can start by purchasing and installing computer in all government owned institutions of learning and organizations. Therefore, user training by computer analysts/ programmer is essential, so that the electronic tool like scientific calculator can become familiar enough to the user.

#### 7.2 Conclusion

Based on the following findings, the following conclusion were reached.

The implementation of this simulated calculator will be a big relief for mathematician, scientist , the all computer users. It has proved and concluded that the implementation of this system will cause the following major achievements to be realized in our educational organization;

- High processing speed of the calculator in the need information or calculation to the users beginning from the simulation stage to the output display stage.
- Changes of processing numbers form BCD (binary coded decimal) to ASCII codes.
- To ensure timely and accurate processing
- Reduction of complexity of calculation in mathematical problem.

Despite the above mentioned achievements of this implement simple scientific calculator system. It is no substitute for mathematicians as arithmetic calculator depends largely on experience and development in the field, but it has the potential to improve their performance or to argument their brain power. Therefore, computers have had profound effect in our lives. We should better get ready for it, for we are in the midst of computer revolution and live in the computer age.

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