The Impact Of Television Viewing On Education Children In Nigeria
The aim of the study was to ascertain the effect of television viewing on education of children in Nigeria. The study was conducted in Port Harcourt, Rivers state, Nigeria. 200 staff of selected secondary schools in port Harcourt were selected randomly by the researcher. The researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objective: (i) To ascertain whether television viewing has an impact on the academic performance of students; (ii) to investigate the impact of TV viewing on career choice of secondary school student; and (iv) to examine whether TV viewing affects the sexuality of primary school student. The results have shown that prolonged TV viewing influences the behaviour of adolescents in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area. There is need for the education of students, parents, media organisations, government and the entire society on the negative effects TV has on children. The type of programs children are exposed to, should be screened and scrutinized carefully and properly to reduce the violence that are harmful to their social well being and for the national development. Media education should be taught in schools to enlighten the young people to respond thoughtfully and critically to media content.
1.1 Background of the Study
Communication to a great extent Is very important in the existence of man. Every thing that man do to survive in life requires communication.
This idea has lead to the development of various devices to enhance communication and information flow in the world, which television was one of them. Its viewing also became necessary as the events occurring in the society were been televised through the television set. Television viewing is the exposure of Individuals to the programmes of television in order to be aware of the things happening in the society for information improvement.
Adult and children are involved In television viewing but the people that formed the basis of discussion In this study are the children.
The global history of television shows that this mass medium came Into existence in the 1920s, though its beginnings were discernible in the nineteenth century.
As Amafili (1993:18), points out, television developed from the combination of firm and radio.
The development of modern television began with the invention of the iconoscope and kinescope. These devices were the basis for television transmission and reception respectively, and were invented in 1923 by a Russian immigrant in the United states of American, named Vladimir Zworykin.
The iconoscope tube used electrons to detect and transmit pictures instantly, its invention transformed television into an electric medium. Before this time, television technology depend mechanical reproduction of visual images.
In Nigeria unlike radio, television broadcasting started from the regional rather than the federal government.
This was as result of the urge by the various regions to develop television as much emphasis was laid on the central development of the medium.
This scenario was in line with the political realities of that era. As Okenwa (1993: 55) argues, the polities of Nigeria before independence place more emphasis on the development of the region more than the centre. The first television station was established in 1959. This was followed by the Eastern Nigeria television (ENlV) which came into existence in 1960 and the radio television kaduna (RTK) established In 1962 as an arm of the broadcasting cooperation of Northern Nigeria. Another television station that started in 1962 was NBC-TV known as Nigeria broadcasting services channels 10.
It started broadcasting in a small wooden studio until 1963 when its permanent television house with studio and offices was opened in 1975.
It acquired Its own colour equipment and was sending out signals to the delight of its viewers.
Through govemment Initiatives in 1977 the Nigerian television Authority was created to handle television broadcasting in the country. It was given exclusive right over television broadcasting in Nigeria. Later the 1979, constitution broke the monopoly so that states which wish to operate television stations could do so. This right of ownership was later extended to private indiViduals, resulting in the granting of licenses to private individuals and organizations by the general Ibrahim Babangida Military government in 1993. As is the case with radio broadcasting, this development revolutionalised television broadcasting in modern Nigeria.
In considering the advantages of television, It has the power of combining sound with vision qualities to make “one of the most powerful communication forces In the history of civilization” (sandman et al; 1976).
Amafili (1993: 18), is correct when he says that most striking characteristics of television is the speed with which it disseminates information.
Television messages came in the form of programmes.
Among the programmes are news, musical variety show, entertainment, dramatic programmes, comedy shows, documentary programmes etc.
The survey research method was employed in this research work. The purpose of using this method was for adequate data generation.
The result when actualized will go a long way gUiding the parents to checkmate the rate at which their children are been exposed to television either to encourage them to watch more or to discourage them from excessive watching.
The researcher used agenda setting theory in the study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem:
The observation by many parents, providers and educators about the way children spend much of their time in television viewing instead of using the time to study their book is worrisome.
An article prepared by Judith Efraham, titled how television viewing affects children, in university of maine cooperative extension bulletin shows that television viewing brings poor school performance in children, violence in the television programmes, video games and movies are growing concern. The children today watch these violent shows and try to imitate it. They strike out at play mates and disobedient authority which affect the positivity of their education.
There is problem of children not living up to expectations in their educational programmes hence cheating in examination halls. Children instead of focusing their mind In doing things like looking at their books, interacting with other children and language development that will help them to perform well in their education now expose themselves in viewing television programme they will be viewing in television that can enhance their performance in education.
It will also educate the parents on how to monitor the type of programmes their children views in television.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of the study is to ascertain the effect of television viewing on education of children in Nigeria, but to aid the successful completion of the study; the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objective;
- To ascertain the effect of television viewing on the academic performance of students
- To investigate the impact of television viewing on career choice of secondary school student
- To examine the effect of television on the sexuality of secondary school student
- To investigate the impact of television viewing on the sexuality of secondary school students
1.4 Research Question
This study will attempt to provide answers to the under listed questions.
- What do television viewing contributes to the education of children in the future hope primary school.
- What are the benefits of television in the society.
- Do television violence programmes generate harm on the education of children.
- Do the television have any harmful effect on the society.
- How can the negative impact of television be changed.
1.5 Research Hypohesis
In the course of this research work, the following hypotheses shall surface.
- Hi: Television viewing contributes positively to the education of children In future hope primary school.
Hoi: Television viewing do not contribute positively to the education of the children in future hope primary school.
- H2: Television is beneficial to the society.
HO: Television is not beneficial to the society.
- H3: Television violence programme generate harm on the education of children.
HO: Television violence programme does not generate harm on the education of children.
- H4: Negative impact of television in the society can be changed.
HO: Negative impact of television tn the society cannot be changed.
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the parent and guardian of secondary school students as the study will help them address and advice the students on the need to filter some of the information acquired from television viewing, the study will also be of importance to the teachers and staff of divers secondary schools in the country, to restrict some of the TV programs that the students are exposed to in their respective dormitory, the study will also be useful to researchers who intend to embark on a study in a similar topic as the study will serve as a reference point to further research, finally the study will be of great importance to the academia, students, teachers and the general public as the findings will add to the pool of existing literature.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of the study covers effect of television viewing on education of children in Nigeria. In the cause of the study, there were some factors which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
The major constrain to the scope of the study is finances. This is because the finance at the disposal of the researcher could not permit elaboration of the scope of the study.
1.8 Definition of Terms:
Conceptually impact means effect something creates in person or another thing. It refers to howsomething or person is affecting, it means the result or something on another or individual.
Television Watch is an American non-profit, non-partisan organization based in Charleston, South Carolina. The organization was established in May 2005 in response to the perceived increase in government regulation of television content.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research
1.9 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the effect of television viewing on education of children in Nigeria.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of television viewing on the education of children.
The study indicate that TV does have an impact on adolescents’ behaviour and it can alter the behaviour of most adolescents. TV viewing with its high content of positive alcohol portrayal and advertisement are particularly strong risk factor for the onset of drinking in most adolescents. This study also shows that watching sex on TV may hasten adolescents’ sexual initiation. This study has implication for students, parents, school counsellors, media organisation, the government and the society as a whole. The results have shown that prolonged TV viewing influences the behaviour of adolescents inObio/Akpor Local Government Area. Various forms of behaviour associated with this as identified by this study include; career, violence, sexual behaviour, drinking and dressing.
There is need for the education of students, parents, media organisations, government and the entire society on the negative effects TV has on adolescents. This awareness will help in understanding of the problems as it affects the adolescent
From the findings of the study, attention has being drawn that TV viewing hours has significant effect on the students’ academic performance. That is too many hours in front of the TV does not enable students bring outtheir full potential in their academics. Though, some researchers argue that the content of what is being viewed should actually be the major cause for concern, while, others argue that when the programs are educative, then viewing is not too bad. But whatever, is the position taken, the type of programs children are exposed to, should be screened and scrutinized carefully and properly to reduce the violence that are harmful to their social well being and for the national development.
Media education should be taught in schools to enlighten the young people to respond thoughtfully and critically to media content. It will enable the kids or the teenagers to put media violence into perspective and perhaps diffuse some of its power.
National film and Vide Censor’s Board [NFVCB] should ensure strict rules and regulations on the films and TV programmes that contain violence, nudity, ritual killings and so on.
Bands and penalties should be strictly levied on any TV station that deviates from the set down rules and regulations. The [NFVCB] should create more awareness about TV ratings and classifications so that children or the teenagers will be less vulnerable.
All the stakeholders to this effect should become more active to ensure that the media become sensitive to the impact of violence on the Nigeria children.
Parents should be active participant in screening and scrutinizing carefully on the kind of TV programmes their children watch. They should also responsible in limiting inappropriate or excessive media use by keeping a critical eye on the content of shows watched by their wards.
Children who have TV sets in their rooms tend to watch more TV with less supervision; Therefore, TV sets should be removed from children bedrooms. Adults can “mediate” viewing and making TV a learning experience by sitting with the child, discussing, asking questions, and helping with interpretation of the content.
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