Girls Participation In Sports Activities In Secondary Schools
This study was carried out on girls participation in sports activities in secondary schools using some selected secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of secondary school girls in some selected secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that the extent girls participation in sports activities in secondary schools is low. The study also revealed that the factors militating girls participation in sports activities in secondary schools includes: gender discrimination, lack of physical fitness, peer influence, and parental influence. Therefore, it is recommended that strategies should be implemented which will build upon this enjoyment, and allow them to participate as fully as possible, in forms that offer them satisfaction and opportunities for achievement. And any strategies concerned with raising participation among young people need to remember that neither girls nor boys are ‘the problem’; rather, the difficulty lies with the ways in which physical activities are constructed and presented. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organization of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
The role of sport has always been recognized, since there is a variation in the role of sports participation and the achievement of its benefits. The general understanding of the masses about the role of sport has been positive and is considered a friendly commitment to humans in everyday life. According to Cote & Fraser, sport has the potential to achieve three important objectives that are physical health, psychosocial development and learning motor skills. In addition to that Kilpatick et al. Ryska, Koivula, have concluded that sports participation has also been shown to have positive effects on physical health, psychological improvement, stress reactivity and mental well-being of both sexes.
Sports participation has also been positive in promoting the academic and social abilities of students. Khan also supported this concept by concluding that “being athletes, most students have shown good academic results in their credits, particularly at the secondary school level.” Research has supported that participation in secondary school sports is not only beneficial for the physical and mental development of the participants, but can also develop the social relationships of young people. This position is supported by Khan as the authors argued that the “declining position of education can be improved through sport and games.” In the light of the above, it can be correctly concluded that students’ academic achievements and participation in sports activities are associated with each other.
Resnick et al. have shown that “participation in sports activities is more valuable in the development of physical and mental health, the development of social attributes and the development of skills”.
The basic problems and challenges for girls’ participation in sports activities in Nigeria have been among nations where the population growth rate is quite high. At present, Nigeria is the sixth most populous country in the world with a population of 188 million, of which 51.35% are men and 48.65 are girls. (Survey of active population of Nigeria 2012-13, Ministry of Planning, Development and Reforms, Population projections for the year 2007-2030 and Office of Statistics of Nigeria). It has been a common observation that girls make up almost half of the total population, but despite that reality, our priorities have changed and instead of paying attention By promoting girls, we ignore them and place them at the end of our priority list. Girls have generally been ignored in many professions, including opportunities to participate in sports. In these circumstances, it is necessary to provide equal opportunities for girls in various professions, including participation in sports activities.
There have been a series of studies focused on different limitations (personal, environmental, biological, psychological, environmental hereditary social, access to peer groups, age, perceived barriers) Type of family activity, obesity, lack of time motivation, money and others facilities) in terms of girls’ participation in sport. Hoden (2010), Kara and Demirci (2010), Scott and Mowen (2010), Stanis et al. (2010) discovered that lack of time, lack of knowledge, family problems, lack of money and peers are the main recreational limitations for girls’ participation in sport.
On most levels, women’s sports attract less money than men’s sports. Women represent 41% of all athletes funded by various programs. In community sports, girls’ teams tend to attract less sponsors from local businesses because they don’t have a large fan base. According to Attarzade and Sohrabi, Mozafari et al. Shores et al. He also concluded that fear of aggression, lack of facilities, gender, race and high entrance fees are some of the other factors that affect the participation of different groups of people in sports activities.
The culture of sport itself is a problem. In third world countries, especially in our eastern culture, sports activities have generally been considered predominantly male activities. On the other hand, girls face a series of problems to participate in the sport. Deem, Jackson and Henderson have concluded that being addicted; It has always been difficult for women to have money to spend on recreational activities. On average, girls have less confidence than boys and rate their performance or skills more negatively than boys. Self-confidence is also linked to competition.
The influence of parents, coaches and other adults affects girls and boys differently. Adolescent girls place greater emphasis on self-comparison and adult comments than adolescent girls, who rely more on competitive results to base their personal judgment on physical competence. The purpose of this study is to explore the problem and challenges of girls’ participation in sport among students in Nigeria’s public schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Different limitations, such as personal, environmental, biological, psychological, social, environmental, peer group access, age, perceived family challenges, obesity, lack of time, motivation, money and other facilities for girls’ participation in sport. All these factors have a great influence on the participation of girls and the promotion of sport. Taking into account the past and present state of the sport, the researcher chose the theme “Problems and challenges of girls’ participation in high school sports activities in Ikeja, Lagos”.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main focus of this study is to examine girls participation in sports activities in secondary schools, Specifically it seeks:
- Determine the extent girls participation in sports activities in secondary schools.
- Ascertain whether there are factors influencing girls participation in sports activities in secondary schools.
- Identity the factors militating girls participation in sports activities in secondary schools.
1.4 Research Question
The following research questions guides the study:
- What is the extent girls participation in sports activities in secondary schools?
- Are there factors influencing girls participation in sports activities in secondary schools?
- What are the factors militating girls participation in sports activities in secondary schools?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following research hypotheses will validate this study:
- H0: The extent of girls participation in sports activities is low
- Ha: The extent of girls participation in sports activities is high.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The importance of this particular study can be justified for several reasons. First, let’s examine the importance of sport in the daily lives of young people. In today’s mechanical era, we assign every task of our daily lives to machines and computers that tend to make man inactive, lazy and incapable. Games and sports are the only effective way of obtaining free time and satisfaction, as well as making good use of the many leisure hours, and free time is a great social problem. Games and sports are the only effective way to frequently provide opportunities to make the most of leisure in terms of participation in different types of sports activities of our choice and interest.
Tension and mental problems are very common today. The sport offers sufficient recreational and entertainment opportunities for all members of society without discrimination. Sport has always produced positive results, regardless of nature, timing and type of use, and in case of stress and mental concerns, sport provides participants with a feeling of freshness and entertainment.
The health benefits of women’s participation in sport and sport are now well established and recognized throughout the world. Participation in sports and sports activities can prevent a number of no communicable diseases, which account for more than 60% of deaths worldwide, including 66% in developing countries, the World Health Organization. A player never has trouble adapting in a society and is a useful member of society. Games in progress can be seen in space, in the mountains, on the plains and on the surface of the water. It was a universal activity and its importance has always been recognized. This study will focus on general issues related to sport and the challenges facing girls’ participation in sports and other sports activities at the high school in Ikeja, Lagos state, Nigeria.
1.6 Scope of Study
The study was conducted in Lagos, as the city has the highest number of high schools with a strong interest in extracurricular activities, including sports, in Nigeria. It is also the most populous city in the world, with almost all public, private and international socio-political and economic sectors. Therefore the respondents of this study will be obtained from some selected secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
During the study, the researchers faced a series of challenges, including time. The time allotted to the study was not enough to carry out an intensive and exhaustive study because some of the information was not available quickly and easily. The fund for the personally funded study was not sufficient to cover all expenses, such as transportation, food allowances, recruitment of research assistants and stationery.
During his investigation, the researcher encountered administrative problems. Many of the respondents, particularly those who were supposed to use questionnaires, were unable to complete the questionnaire on time and others deceived them to the point of requiring the researcher to redistribute other copies. In addition, many respondents had the idea of obtaining money from the researcher, especially when they knew he was researching as a prerequisite for graduation. The letter of introduction from the university that the researcher had not convinced.
1.9 Definition of Terms
This is an activity involving physical exertion and skill in which an individual or team competes against another or others for entertainment.
1.10 Organization of the Studies
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on girls participation in sports activities in secondary schools using some selected secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on girls participation in sports activities in secondary schools using some selected secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to determine the extent girls participation in sports activities in secondary schools, ascertain whether there are factors influencing girls participation in sports activities in secondary schools, and identity the factors militating girls participation in sports activities in secondary schools.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants, where all respondent are girls in the selected secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.
- The extent girls participation in sports activities in secondary schools is low.
- There are factors influencing girls participation in sports activities in secondary schools.
- The factors militating girls participation in sports activities in secondary schools includes: Gender discrimination, lack of physical fitness, peer influence, parental influence.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- Girls do enjoy engaging in physical activities. Strategies should be implemented which will build upon this enjoyment, and allow them to participate as fully as possible, in forms that offer them satisfaction and opportunities for achievement.
- Practices should be established which recognise the importance of fun, health and social interaction in sports participation.
- School physical education is a foundation of life-long physical activity. Fundamental movement skills need to be developed from an early age, for all children, with the emphasis on the individual body, rather than sporting outcomes.
- Some girls regularly engage in sports and physical activities, as an integral part of their lifestyle. Any strategies concerned with raising participation among young people need to remember that neither girls nor boys are ‘the problem’; rather, the difficulty lies with the ways in which physical activities are constructed and presented.
- It is important to examine and highlight the practices inherent within sports which might deter children from participating. Sports provision may need to be adapted to encourage and accommodate all young people.
- It is necessary to listen to voices from outside mainstream sports, for example, dance, mixed ability, noncompetitive and co-operative activities.
- Sports programme should reflect local cultural needs if they are to engage and sustain girls participation.
- The organisation of sports groups and programmes should be include women in key roles, such as coaching and mentors, and role models drawn from within local communities and schools. These should reflect differences in perspectives and interests, and develop close links with schools and communities, to ensure continuity of engagement in sports and physical activities throughout life.
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