Impact Of Covid 19 On Sport Development In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Zaria Local Government)

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Impact Of Covid 19 On Sport Development In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Zaria Local Government)


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the impact of Covid 19 on sport development in Nigeria using Zaria Local Government a case study. The study was carried out to find out whether Covid-19 had a negative effect on sport development in Zaria Local Government, ascertain the various Covid-19 measures which affected sport development in Zaria Local Government, and ascertain impact of Covid-19 on sport development in Zaria Local Governmen. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of athletes in Zaria Local Government. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that COVID-19 pandemic had a negative effect on sport development in Zaria Local Government, as such sport was stopped for all intents and purposes, non-facility-dependent sports were prohibited, games were played in empty stadiums hence affecting ticketing revenue, the revenue streams for sports organizations ultimately decreased, and employment of some staff was terminated. Therefore, it is recommended that attention needs to be paid to the integration of new technology, as well as e-sports, this will be a special place in the holding of sporting events currently and into the future. The typical sports revenue generating methods will change, and in the future, the revenue-generating models will be based on the likelihood of a crisis occurring as a result of compensatory measures. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

As at December 2019 Wuhan in China reported an outbreak of a SARS-CoV-2 infection disease, identified as an atypical pneumonia (Ghasemi, 2017). By March 2020 The World Health Organisation (WHO) classified it as a pandemic referred to as Covid-19. COVID-19 is a droplet-transmitted potentially fatal corona virus pandemic affecting the world in 2020. It is a family of viruses that can cause respiratory illness in humans. The name, “corona,” was derived from the many crown-like spikes on the surface of the virus. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and the common cold are examples of corona viruses that cause illness in humans.

The WHO recommended social distancing and human-to-human contact was discouraged to control the transmission. This situation necessitated lock down in many countries and sporting events were also been affected.

Sports events as those that are characterized by a creative and complex content of sports-like, recreational activities, of entertaining character, performed in accordance with a particular predetermined programme, and that achieve touristic effects and have a serious social and economic importance for the place or region in which they are held (Gibson 1998).

The sports sector, despite being an important sector at economic, sporting, and social levels, has not been exempt from these restrictions. According to Durkheim(1995), “the sport sector has been especially influenced by the COVID-19 crisis in a way that has never been seen before”. All physical activity, face-to-face, and group sports were suddenly and indefinitely restricted in many countries, often being relegated to home-based physical training.

Participation in sports and exercise, typically regarded as socioeconomic events and healthy activities were restricted by nations to curtail the spread of this dreadful virus. The professional international and local football leagues (with other sport events inclusive) were ultimately shutdown after much deliberation on the transmission risk for the spectators and on-field players (Goodwin,2020). Large spectating crowds are well-known to be infectious hazards, but the infection risk for on-field players is less recognized (Goodwin,2020).

To date, the impact of Covid-19 still lingers as many sporting events only holds under certain policies like in the world of football where only on-field players, team managers and other regulative individuals are seen in the stadiums during competitions while spectators are not allowed into the stadiums. Hence upon this ground that study tends to investigate the effect of covid-19 pandemic on sporting activities.


1.2 Statement of Problem

The entire world was turned on its head with the widening impact of COVID-19 on several sectors including the sports sector. With competitions canceled or postponed, millions of dollars were lost in predicted revenue. Sport sectors, Clubs and franchises in major leagues were able to survive during lock downs due to lucrative television contracts. As at when soccer resumed in four of the five main leagues in Europe by July 2020, matches were played in empty stadiums, fan chanting was piped over the airways to resemble a match-day atmosphere for spectators. Key events like the Open Golf Championship in the United Kingdom were canceled while others such as the US Masters golf tournament were moved from Spring to Autumn. In same manner other numerous sporting activities were so restricted to participants only and individual physical activities done behind closed doors. Therefore in this study, the major concern and focus of the researcher is to carryout an investigation on the impact of Covid 19 on sport development in Nigeria using Zaria Local Government a case study.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the impact of Covid 19 on sport development in Nigeria using Zaria Local Government a case study. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Find out whether Covid-19 had a negative effect on sport development in Zaria Local Government.
  2. Ascertain the various Covid-19 measures which affected sport development in Zaria Local Government.
  3. Ascertain impact of Covid-19 on sport development in Zaria Local Government.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. Did the COVID-19 pandemic have a negative effect on sport development in Zaria Local Government?
  2. What are the various Covid-19 measures which affected sport development in Zaria Local Government?
  3. What are the impact of Covid-19 on sport development in Zaria Local Government?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: COVID-19 pandemic had no a negative effect on sport development in Zaria Local Government.
  • Ha: COVID-19 pandemic had a negative effect on sport development in Zaria Local Government.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be relevant to Government bodies, sports organizations, sport regulators and In likewise manner will be useful to students researchers and the general public as the findings are reveals the harms done by Covid-19 and the recommendations which are practically useful to regulate sports activities in this current era of Covid-19 pandemic.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study boarders on the impact of Covid 19 on sport development in Nigeria using Zaria Local Government a case study. Hence, the study will be delimited to Zaria Local Government, Kaduna State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Covid-19:

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases.

Sport:

An activity involving physical exertion and skill in which an individual or team competes against another or others for entertainment.

Sports:

Sporting event means an athletic activity requiring skill or physical prowess, usually competitive in nature and governed by a set of rules provided by a nationally recognized sanctioning body or by a local organization engaged in the development and active promotion of the athletic activity.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of Covid 19 on sport development in Nigeria using Zaria Local Government a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the impact of Covid 19 on sport development in Nigeria using Zaria Local Government a case study. The study specifically was aimed to find out whether Covid-19 had a negative effect on sport development in Zaria Local Government, ascertain the various Covid-19 measures which affected sport development in Zaria Local Government, and ascertain impact of Covid-19 on sport development in Zaria Local Government.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are athletes in Zaria Local Government.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. COVID-19 pandemic had a negative effect on sport development in Zaria Local Government, as such sport was stopped for all intents and purposes, non-facility-dependent sports were prohibited, games were played in empty stadiums hence affecting ticketing revenue, the revenue streams for sports organizations ultimately decreased, and employment of some staff was terminated.
  2. The various Covid-19 measures which affected sport development in Zaria Local Government includes social distancing , restriction of body-to-body contact activities, restriction of interpersonal interactions within proximity, and domestic and international travel ban.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Attention needs to be paid to the integration of new technology, as well as e-sports, this will be a special place in the holding of sporting events currently and into the future. The typical sports revenue generating methods will change, and in the future, the revenue-generating models will be based on the likelihood of a crisis occurring as a result of compensatory measures.
  2. There is need for sport organizations to develop a variety of plans to manage potential crises in the future. The sports industry needs to be more prepared and flexible on ways to use new methods and utilize its capacities and resources for education, revenue generation, human resource management, and maintaining a favorable relationship with society.
  3. Sport activities with a face-mask definitely has a toll on the human body and it is advised to adjust the exercise intensity when masked. Sports and exercise may be important, especially for resourceful sport competitions, but safety is still paramount. Everyone should practice safe sports with the appropriate measures and prevent the further transmission of the COVID-19 pandemic.

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