Effect Of Corruption On Sports Development

Project And Seminar Material Under Sports Science

Effect Of Corruption On Sports Development (Daniel)


Abstract


Corruption in sports simply denoteany illegal, immoral or unethical activity that attempts to deliberately distort the result of a sports contest or management for the personal material gain of one or more parties involved in that activity. Sports attract money. With money commercialization of sports grows, sports opens a possibility to corruption which might significantly result to negative impact on sports development. It was to that effect that this study was conducted to find out how respondents perceived the impact of corrupt practices on sports development in Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of this research study, five research questions were revised from which one major hypothesis were formulated. The major instrument used for collection of relevant information for this study was a questionnaire designed and validated for its face and content validity. The population for the study comprised the athletes‘ coaches, organizing secretaries and management staff of the State sport council in Lagos state. The sample population was 120 who were given questionnaire to fill 100(96 %;) were duly filled and returned. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency mean and standard deviation and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to test the hypotheses at 0,05 level of significance. All the five hypotheses were retained.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

There has been a debate as to why sports has become such a lucrative global industry in sports management literature, it is the ―uncertainty of sports that gives its unpredictable joy and their characteristics intensity‖ it is this uncertainty and unpredictability that make sports such an exciting opportunity for businesses around the world to take advantage (Manson, 1999). But what happens if this uncertainty and unpredictability is taken away? In recent years there have been an increase in the number of reports detailing ‗corrupt behavior by individuals at all levels of sports and those associated with it both on and off the field of play, in the pursuit of financial success usually reserved for those who are winning global championships (Chadwick & Gorse 2013).

Corruption is recognized to be one of the world‘s greatest challenge, and a major hindrance to sustainable development, with a disproportionate impact on poor communities and is corrosive on every fabric of society.Corruption involves a deliberate use of one‘s position to get illegitimate benefits and undue advantage which could be financial or in other forms (Amuwo 2005, Obayelu, 2007, Heeks, 1998, Khan, 1999). It is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon with multiple causes and effects, as it takes on various forms and functions in different context (United Nation Committee against Corruption (UNCAC 2013).

Corruption has become an issue of major political and economic significance, and this has led to a resurgence of interest in analyzing the phenomenon and the diverse forms that it assumes in developing countries, with an expectation that democratization and economic liberalization offer potential routes to dealing with the problem. An Anti‐corruption strategy ranges from institutional reforms through concerted efforts at the international level. The efficacy of these approaches has not been subjected to careful empirical research. The study of corruption has been ―multi-disciplinary‖ and dispersed, ranging from universal theoretical modeling to detailed descriptions of single corruption scandal. It has been studied as a problem of political, economic, cultural or moral under- development. The complex nature of corruption has made most observers agree that it pervades many societies and that there are no quick-fix solutions to it (UNCAC, 2013).

Corruption in sports involves any illegal, immoral or unethical activity that attempts to deliberately distort the result of a Sports contest for the personal material gain of one or more parties involved in that activity( Chadwick& Gorse, 2010). Organization of large-scale events (such as Sports) involves complex logistics, tight timeframes and substantial public funds, these therefore present opportunities and risk of corruption, since whenever there is money, competition or power involved, corruption is a constant threat, as the organizational structure may not support practices that would be considered accountable and transparent (Maening,2005). In many instances, excessive responsibility, power and money have been given to individuals, whose main credentials may be their status as former athletes or club leader (Audu, 2009).

Although corruption in sports is not a new phenomenon; at the Olympic Games in 388BC Eupolos of Thessalia bribed three of the competitors in a fighting tournament allowing him to win the gold medal (Maening, 2005). However, in recent times Sports have suffered from a dramatic growth in reports of corruption, from bribery to plain cheating (Chadwick & Gorse, 2013). Notable cases in the modern era of sports include the fixing of 1991 World Series by members of Chicago White Sox who took bribe from gamblers; Ben Jonson‘s infamous failed drugs test in 1980s(Maening, 2005). The most recent of all corruption scandal is the one that erupted among the FIFA executive in which the president and other members were suspended. While in Nigeria the officials of Nigeria Football Federation were indicted for corruption during the world cup in Brazil.Corruption in sports centers around match fixing or gambling, biased refereeing; and to a similar but different degree the use of performance enhancing drugs. This definition seeks to take into account the role of athletes and officials who manipulate sports contest (Atuono, 2011). According to Transparency International – Czech Republic (T I CR) (2008) the first step to preventing something is to understand what it is and how it happens. There are so many different aspects to sports corruption that it is difficult to provide a short and comprehensive definition. Chappelet, (2012) noted that although the Federal Council‘s report does not explicitly mention the two categories, it divides sports corruption into two main types: corruption on the field of play and corruption off the field of play. These two categories of corruption in sports have been referred by Chadwick and Gorse, (2013) as competition and management corruption, these include the rigging of sports s event, bidding procedures or elections to important positions in federations, the payment of kickbacks for the construction of sports facilities or the signing of sponsorship and broadcasting contracts, and the manipulation of competitions or match fixing, whether or not related to betting.

Across the sports sector, most deals and decisions take place behind closed doors, allowing corruption to go unchecked and unpunished, thus the actual extent of corruption in sports is greater than reported. This assumption according to him, would seem reasonable particularly because those continents or sub-continents that are regarded in the discussion as the highly corrupt, such as, Africa, South America and Asia, hardly appear in reports on corruption in Sports this has serious consequences on the continent sports development (Chadwick, 2013).

Sports development means progressive change in the quality and quantity of manpower that can effectively conduct the management of affairs in Sports organizations, sports federations and associations, construction, expansion and maintenance of standard Sports facilities and provision of equipment for all games, well organized Sports competitions, where rules, regulations and standards are maintained to enhance high performance by both athletes and officiating officials, and an encouraging public private partnership in the promotion, sponsor and ownership of sports s clubs. Sports stand as important societal institution and consider as important in relaying of ideals, norm and values on those who participate or spectate, the concept of fair play is always mention here and referred to athlete competing in an honest manner, not seeking to break rules and win by unfair practice. A lack of integrity in the sports industry may endanger sport‘s most essential elements and core values: fair play, ethics, mutual respect and trust in the rules of the game (Atuona, 2012).

Jovanka (2013) noted that corruption, affect sports development in terms of infrastructure, sports s organization, administrative efficiency and national image, it also affects equitable allocation of resources among the Sports federations and associations, increasing inequalities, and undermining their effectiveness, efficiency and achievement. This, in turn, may undermine long- term sustainable Sports development. Similarly, Maleeva (2013) said that the beautiful games that attract fans over the world have in the recent past seen players and top officials involved in anti- social activities that have made Sports more like a film than an actual game. Sports fans around the world have been left disappointed by the recent doping, match fixing and corruption that have been rampant in many games.

Report of the key sectors assessment of corruption in UK conducted, by Transparency International UK (TIUK), (2011) revealed that ―Of all the areas studied ,―none was more challenging (and perhaps none more controversial) than sports. Sports corruptions have a profound impact in terms of culture and public trust. Sports stars are role models in a manner unlike other public figures such as politicians. For a leading sports figure to be accused of corruption creates a ripple effect that can last for decades. To this day, for example, Ben Johnson still stands as a symbol for the illicit use of performance-enhancing drugs in athletics. It is little surprise, therefore, that Sports is seen by the UK public as the second most corrupt sector in the country‖ (TIUK, 2011).

Sports corruption is a worldwide threat to the integrity of Sports, creating significant challenges for sports management scholars and practitioners. The sports industry have experienced multiple forms of corruption (e.g., fraud, bribery) that has ranged in extent (e.g., individual to systematic), occurred in varying contexts, (Sports, governance, online betting), and resulted in a multitude of consequences (financial costs, diminished reputations). The complexity and multidimensional nature of corruption has been discussed in various literatures. Whilst this body of work have provided a sound starting point in the scholarly premise, corruption in the Sports industry have been largely under-explored, global sports industry provides a rich context to substantially contribute to the scholarly discussion about corruption in terms of its conceptualization, causes, consequences, and reforms (Lisa, Terry, James and Stephen, 2015). The need to build on the existing corruption research and increase our understanding of the complexity and multidimensional nature of corruption, within the context of sports development in Nigeria Therefore, underscores the importance of this research field Impact of Corruption on Sports Development.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Corruption on the field of play, according to Chappelet (2012) concerns athletes, their entourage and sometimes judges/referees. It involves cheating with respect to the rules of the sports in order to win (doping), to lose voluntarily (tanking), or to manipulate part of a competition (spotfixing). The Federal Council‘s report focuses on the manipulation of results in relation to irregular or illegal betting. On this issue, and despite opposition from some States (UK, Scandinavian countries), the report pins its hopes on the Council of Europe Convention that is currently being formulated. a) Manipulation of sports competitions The manipulation of sports competitions is now acknowledged as a serious problem in many Sports and at many levels. This relates both to the fixing of events within matches (spot-fixing) and manipulating the final results to ensure higher gambling pay-outs. Fixing of competitions also relates to the tradition of clubs colluding on end-of-season games to impact how teams are promoted and relegated within leagues. This may be done for prestige or, in the case of the higher leagues, access to millions of dollars in sponsorship and TV monies (Maennig 2005). The recent increase in match-fixing is primarily linked with the rise of global, cross-border betting, via the Internet. Match-fixing can affect all Sports from horseracing and football, to cricket and snooker. Athletes, referees, and other match officials most often are the means by which matchfixing occurs. These individuals abuse their positions to impact results for personal gain, but often under duress. For example, in 2012 the world players‘ union for football (Federation of International Football Players) published a survey conducted in Eastern Europe on how vulnerable players can be to match-fixing, particularly in leagues where salaries are not paid on time and organised crime syndicates target players(Maennig, 2005).

When you fight corrupt practices you are directly fighting corruption. noted that eradicating corruption has become increasingly important to stakeholders in sports, from governing bodies and federations through to event-owners, clubs and teams. Organisations such as the International Olympic Committee have seriously sought to tackle financial corruption. The World Anti-Doping Agency and others have made great strides in confronting the use of drugs. Yet corruption remains, despite their actions Maennig, 2012; Chadwick ,2013) In recent time several efforts have been put in place in order to fight and eradicate corruption in Sports. Over the past few years, governments and multilateral organizations have joined anticorruption groups and the media in calling for improved governance and regulatory measures to address the corruption challenges which have tainted the image of sports. Problems in the governance of Sports organisations, fixing of matches and staging of major Sports events have spurred action on many fronts. Yet attempts to stop corruption in sports are still at an early stage (Shah, 2007).

According to Idris (2014) the laws have seriously been broken as a result of which corruption is now a major impediment to sports development in Nigeria; Today there is growing concerned and attempts by individuals who are asking why despite the amount of money claimed to have been expended on sports by government at all levels in Nigeria, sports continues to suffer from too many structural and managerial problems, remaining to a large extent in the hands of quacks and nonprofessionals, who are more interested in their personal gains than sports development. The researcher observed with interest that despite the recent global concerns on the impact of corrupt practices such as embezzlement, bribery, nepotism, match fixing, doping, and host of other and the emergence of several reforms directed at addressing the problems of corrupt practices in international Sports, study on corruption in sports have been under explored, and the extent of known cases in Nigeria merely represent the tip of the iceberg (Idris, 2014).

The researcher observed that in the past several research studies have been conducted on the constraint to sports development in Nigeria, while very little have been mention about corruption in sports, it seemed that the previous research findings and the recommendations there after did not address the problems to any significant level. Several questions therefore remain unanswered. Why are sports facilities in most of the States in poor conditions and mostly sub- standard? Why are the numbers of professional sports personnel declining in Nigeria, creating acute shortage of athletes? Why are sports associations‘not organizing competitions for their respective Sports and games for long and where they do the standard is very low? the integrity of referees and sports official, have always been put to question due to poor officiating, and there is a looming crisis among Sports associations, all these have serious effect on the performance of our athletes at the national and international competitions. The researcher therefore is interested in the assessment of the perceived impact of corrupt practices on sports development in Nigeria.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The purpose of this study is to;

  1. Determine whether corruption practices are perceived to have any impact on the performance of staff of Nigeria.
  2. Determine whether corruption practices are perceived to have any impact on sports facilities/equipment in Nigeria.
  3. Determine whether corruption practices are perceived to have any impact on functions of the sports Associations, in Nigeria
  4. Determine whether corruption practices are perceived to have any impact on sports officiating in Nigeria.
  5. Determine whether corruption practices are perceived to have any impact on the organization of sports competitions in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were generated to guide this study;

  1. Does the technical and administrative staff differ in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on the personnel staff of the states‘ sports councils in Nigeria?
  2. Does the technical and administrative staff differ in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on the sports facilities/equipment of the states‘ sports councils in Nigeria?
  3. Does the technical and administrative staff differ in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on the sports associations in Nigeria?
  4. Does the technical and administrative staff differ in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on sports competitions in Nigeria?
  5. Does the technical and administrative staff differ in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on sports officiating in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses are set to be tested at 0.05 level of significance:

  • Ho: There is no significant difference between the Technical and Administrative staff in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on Sports Development in Nigeria.
  • Hi: There is a significant difference between the Technical and Administrative staff in their perceived impact of corruption on Sports Development in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is significant on the following basis.

  • The result of this study may help to reveal how corrupt practices are perceived to have affected sports development in the States Sports Councils in Nigeria.
  • This study may opening another challenging chapters for further research studies, in different environment such as institutional, private sectors sports organizations and sponsorship, advertisement and broadcasting right.
  • The result of this study may help to suggest the best possible ways of tackling the menace of corrupt practices in the sports so as to find a long lasting solution to constraint to sport development in Nigeria.
  • The study may serve as a guide to the anticorruption agencies, who may want to use the recommendations in the fight against corruption in Nigeria.
  • The study may contribute to existing body of knowledge. Since the methods and procedures used may be adopted for further research study in other areas of human endeavor.

1.7 Scope of the Study

The study will analyze the effect of corruption on sports development in Nigeria. The study is limited to staff of States Sports Councils in Nigeria. Hence, the respondents for this study will be obtained from and among the staff.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Abuse of Power:

Authority is used for personal benefit

Administrative Staff:

These are the organizing secretaries and the management staff

Bribery:

The offering, promising, giving, accepting or soliciting of an advantage as an inducement for an action which is illegal, unethical or a breach of trust

Conflict of interest:

Disagreement confronted in terms of choosing between the duties and demands or choice

Corruption:

Deliberate use of one‘s position to get illegitimate benefits and undue advantages

Corrupt Practices:

Illegal, immoral or unethical activity aimed at acquiring illegitimate benefits and undue advantages


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

Corruption in sports simply denoteany illegal, immoral or unethical activity that attempts to deliberately distort the result of a sports contest or management for the personal material gain of one or more parties involved in that activity. Sports attract money. With money commercialization of sports grows, sports opens a possibility to corruption which might significantly result to negative impact on sports development. It was to that effect that this study was conducted to find out how respondents perceived the impact of corrupt practices on sports development in Nigeria.

To achieve the purpose of this research study, five research questions were revised from which one major hypothesis were formulated. The major instrument used for collection of relevant information for this study was a questionnaire designed and validated for its face and content validity. The population for the study comprised the athletes‘ coaches, organizing secretaries and management staff of the State sport council in Lagos state. The sample population was 120 who were given questionnaire to fill 100(96 %;) were duly filled and returned. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency mean and standard deviation and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to test the hypotheses at 0,05 level of significance. All the five hypotheses were retained.


5.2 Conclusions

Based on the finding of this study the following conclusion are drawn

  1. There was no significant difference among athletes, coaches, organizing secretaries and management staff in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on performance and productivity of the staff of the States Sports Council
  2. There was no significant difference among athletes, coaches, organizing secretaries and management staff in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on sports facilities and equipment in the States Sports Council
  3. There was no significant difference among athletes, coaches, organizing secretaries and management staff in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on on the sports associations in the States Sports council in Nigeria.
  4. There was no significant difference among athletes, coaches, organizing secretaries and management staff in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on organization of Sports competitions by States Sports Councils Nigeria.
  5. There was no significant difference among athletes, coaches, organizing secretaries and Management staff in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on Sports officiating in States Sports Councils Nigeria.

5.3 Recommendations

On the basis of this findings the following recommendations are made

  1. There should be due process in the staff recruitment, training and development to ensure that only those who are qualified are employed and trained to serve in the State Sport Councils
  2. There should be due process in the award of contract for sports facilities/ equipment to ensure compliance with the specifications and standard.
  3. Members of the sports associations should respect the constitutions of the associations, to ensure real democracy, free and fair election that will lead to the emergence of good leadership
  4. In, order to restore the integrity and the standard of sports competitions only people with proving integrity and technical knowhow should be allowed to serve as members of the organizing committee of sports competitions
  5. There should be training and retraining of our referees umpire and the entire officiating official, so that they can meet up with international standard.

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