The Effect Of Hygienic Environment In Food And Beverages Industry
This study was carried out to assess the effect of hygienic environment in food and beverages industry using Pure Floor Mill Limited as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of staff in production unit of Pure Floor Mill Limited. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 59 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that sanitary practices has an effect on the environmental hygiene of food and beverages industry. The study also revealed that environmental hygiene has an effect on the of food and beverages industry. Therefore, it is recommended that manufacturing companies should ensure that the staff comply with its environmental hygiene cultures. And the Government should establish pre-requisite standard operation procedures in all organizations undertaking the production of food and beverages. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organization of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
The need to strengthen food safety and hygiene practices is a fundamental public health concern for all for the prevention of food borne diseases. World Health Organization (WHO) (1999) defines food as any substance, whether processed, semi processed or raw which is intended for human consumption. In a similar view, Akande (2002) defines food as any substance, prepared and eaten by people to take care of their physiological needs. Also, Ohiokpehai (2004) describes food as any thing liquid or solid material which when taken and digested can provide the body with nourishment. It can be deduced form the above definitions that food is any substance eaten that can provide the body with its needs. It follows that food as a basic human need must be wholesome and safe. This is because good and adequate food promotes good health while poor and adulterated food substances are potential hazards to human health.
Globally 600 million people are estimated to have post- consumption food-related illnesses; and among these, 420,000 die annually giving rise to loss of 33 million healthy life years (DALYs) with the cost of illness that is associated with illness in Nigeria estimated at US$3.6 billion per annum (WHO, 2017; Ezirigwe, 2018). These events were caused by inadequate or faulty food hygiene and safety management. Food handlers in the food chain often have inadequate knowledge of food safety standard operations checklists, and their practices reflect these deficiencies (Iro et al., 2017; Azuama et al., 2018; Amadi et al., 2018; Chukuezi, 2010); as well as in the poor bacteriological qualities of the food produced by the food handlers (Onyeneho & Hedberg, 2013;Ifeadike et al., 2014; Azuama et al., 2018; Iro et al., 2019).
Poor food hygiene and safety management starts from the farms where primary production takes place. The quantities of pesticide and other agrochemicals used in the farms are not in agreement with the quantities recommended by Codex Alimentarius Commission, and this results to their residues rising higher than recommended quantities. Majority of food vendors sell along the streets, carrying their food in carts, wheel-barrows or such other carriers like these from one customer to the other (Ezirigwe, 2018; Onyeneho & Hedberg, 2013). Some of the food handlers display their wares on bare ground (Iro, 2015). Poor food hygiene and safety management by producers and manufacturers is further compounded by the inadequate knowledge of food hygiene and safety management by food consumers themselves (ILRI, 2011).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Poor regulatory system also impedes food hygiene and management in Nigeria (Omotayo & Denloye, 2002; Ifenkwe, 2012; Omojokun, 2013). A clement regulatory environment is key to achieving food hygiene and safety management.
A robust food hygiene and safety management system offers immeasurable advantages not only to the individual consumers and the business communities, but also to the entire nation as well as the global community. It confers good health to food consumers; increases the profit of the food businesses; it improves the economy of the country as it opens the way for food exports – the international community imports only food and food products that have been certified to have been produced with international food hygiene and safety guidelines; it therefore reduces the quantity of unsafe food that crosses international boarders; finally, it addresses four of the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) of the United Nations: 1. No Poverty, 2. Zero Hunger, 3. Good Health and Well-being, and 12. Responsible Consumption and Production.
The chances of food contamination and cross contamination become higher especially in the lower socio-economic classes due to unsatisfactory environmental conditions, poor personal hygiene, poor quality and insufficient water supplies, unhygienic preparation storage and feeding of foods. (Khan Hameed, 1997; UNICEF, 2000). Food safety hazards are contaminants that may cause a food product to be unsafe for production. Lack of adequate food hygiene can lead to food borne diseases and death of the consumer. Contaminated food presents one of the most common cause and major contributor to gastrointestinal illness (e.g. acute diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain), compromised nutritional status and less resistance to disease and loss of productivity in the world today (Jacob, 1989). To a large extent gastrointestinal illness resulting from food contamination can be prevented if safe food-hygiene practices are followed at various stages of food purchase, storage, preparation and consumption (Mathee et al., 2004).
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main focus of this study is to examine the effect of hygienic environment in food and beverages industry. Specifically it seeks:
- To determine whether sanitary practices has an effect on the environmental hygiene of food and beverages industry.
- To determine whether there is adequate environmental hygienic culture in the food and beverages industry.
- To determine whether sanitary supervision affects the environmental hygienic of food and beverages industry.
- To determine whether environmental hygiene has an effect on the of food and beverages industry.
1.4 Research Question
The following research questions guides the study:
- Does sanitary practices has an effect on the environmental hygiene of food and beverages industry?
- Is there adequate environmental hygiene culture in the food and beverages industry?
- Does sanitary supervision affect the environmental hygienic of food and beverages industry.
- Does environmental hygiene have a positive effect on the of food and beverages industry.
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses will validate this study:
H0: Environmental hygiene have no positive effect on the of food and beverages industry.
Ha: Environmental hygiene has a positive effect on the of food and beverages industry.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The practical significance of the study would be of immense benefits to the following:
Ministry of Health, food vendors, parents, school children, researchers and the entire society. The findings would enable the Health Ministry authorities to be aware and appreciate the roles and problems of food and beverage industry. This will help them to come up with good policy intervention to promote food safety measures in the various school environments where the food vendors operate.
The findings would help the food and beverage industry to adopt good hygiene practices that will prevent food contamination. It would provide them with the skills to ensure proper food hygiene as well as the need for them to maintain their personal and environmental cleanliness where they cell their products.
The parents who give their children pocket money would also benefit. This will assure them of the quality and safe food sold to their children in the schools. The children themselves would benefit from the findings. They would be offered good quality and safe food by the vendors in the schools. The good quality food would help to improve their nutritional status.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study focuses on the effect of hygienic environment in food and beverages industry. The study will be carried out in Pure Floor Mill Limited.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The following posed to be a constraint to the study
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
However in the midst above mentioned limitation the researcher devotedly ensured that the purpose of the study was actualized.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Food obtained for a household or for a country.
1.10 Organization of the Studies
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of hygienic environment in food and beverages industry using Pure Floor Mill Limited as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the effect of hygienic environment in food and beverages industry using Pure Floor Mill Limited as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to determine whether sanitary practices has an effect on the environmental hygiene of food and beverages industry, determine whether there is adequate environmental hygienic culture in the food and beverages industry, determine whether sanitary supervision affects the environmental hygienic of food and beverages industry, and determine whether environmental hygiene has an effect on the of food and beverages industry.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were staff in production unit of Pure Floor Mill Limited.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;
- Sanitary practices has an effect on the environmental hygiene of food and beverages industry.
- There is adequate environmental hygienic culture in the food and beverages industry.
- Sanitary supervision affects the environmental hygienic of food and beverages industry.
- Environmental hygiene has an effect on the of food and beverages industry.
Base on the findings, the following recommendations can be made:
- The Government should establish pre-requisite standard operation procedures in all organizations undertaking the production of food and beverages.
- There is need to create food safety awareness by holding workshops, seminars and sensitization programme to the stakeholders of manufacturing sector and hospitality industry.
- Manufacturing companies should ensure that the staff comply with its environmental hygiene cultures.
- Health inspections should be scheduled and carried out more often by relevant authorities in the area.
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